Study Guide Chapter 8 For Ap Bio (Biology By Campbell And Reece)

961 words - 4 pages

This study guide is my completed questions to the questions that are issued by the teacher using the text "Biology" by Campbell and Reece.Chapter 8: Membrane Structure and Function1. Phospholipids consist of a hydrophilic head, and a hydrophobic tail. The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer two membranes thick. The bilayer is a stable boundary between two compartments because the molecular arrangement shelters the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids from water while the hydrophilic heads stay in the water.a. It was believed that only the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids immersed in the water and their was no bilayer.2. When the halves of the fractured membrane are viewed in the electron microscope, the interior of the bilayer looks cobblestoned, with protein particles wedged in a smooth matrix. This shows that membrane proteins are dispersed and individually inserted into the phospholipid bilayer, with only their hydrophilic regions out far enough from the bilayer to be exposed to water.3. Membranes must be fluid to work properly. A membrane remains fluid as temperature decreases, until finally the phospholipids settle into a tight arrangement and the membrane becomes solid. When a membrane solidifies, enzymatic proteins in the membrane may become inactive.a. A cell can change the lipid composition of their membranes as an adjustment to changing temperature. For example;, in winter wheat, the percentage of unsaturated phospholipids increases in autumn, an adaptation that keeps the membranes from solidifying during winter.4. Membrane carbohydrates and proteins are important for a cell to recongnize another cell. Proteins also act as channels across the membrane to allow certain solutes out and in.a. Changing a membranes composition will affect a membranes function because certain proteins for example are placed in certain spots for proper joining and recognition.b. Transport- allows certain solutes in and out of the cell.Enzymatic activity- proteins are used as active site.Signal transdeuction- binding with a specific shape.Intercellular joining- adjacent cells may be hooked togetherCell-cell recognition- sugars that serve as id tagsAttatchment to the cytoskeleton- some element of the cytoskeleton may be bonded to the membrane proteins.5. A membrane's molecular organization results in selective permeability. \a. Hydrophobic molecules, such as hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, can dissolve in the lipid bilayer of the membrane and cross it with ease.6. Some transport proteins function by having a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane. Other transport proteins hold onto their passengers and physically move them across the membrane.a. The transport protein is specific for the substances it moves, allowing only a certain substance to cross the membrane. For example, glucose carried in blood to the human liver enters liver cells rapidly through specific transport proteins in...

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