Study Notes Australia At Turn Of The Century Before Federation.

1620 words - 6 pages

Study NotesHow people lived in the Turn of the Century in Australia.People lived by the Laissez Faire, government policy which did not interfere much in economic affairs and left individuals to look after themselves.Many farmers walked off their farm as they couldn't afford to stay due to the drought. People started living in or near the capital cities.There was much inequality in Australia and life for many working-class and rural people was marked by poverty.Living as a working class person was tough, there were no benefits scheme until after Federation.They lived in houses with no sewerage, indoor toilets and baths were rare. They had small and often crowded houses.Social problems started to occur, such as drunkenness, prostitution, crime and begging.Health was a constant problem. The slum conditions made it easy for disease to spread, rats brought further contamination.There were no antibiotics before 1914 and medical knowledge was poor. Few working-class people could afford doctors before 1914. There was no such thing as Medicare.Higher Education was rare for a working class person.Infant mortality was high.But Higher Class people were quite the opposite. They had high amounts of money, shorter working hours, own businesses, they had access to doctors and mostly obtained a higher level of education than Lower Class people. They had time for leisure activities.In the 1st decade of the 20th Century, Government began to construct a social welfare system (you had to be white)Working Conditions at the Turn of the CenturyWorkers had no toilets (Some). Women in textiles were to bring work home although they were working 16 hours.Workers could go to jail for asking for a pay rise. There was no overtime pay or any benefits.Shop workers between 9a.m to 9.p.m or 11p.m. Workers were not permitted to sit down during working hours. The average life expectancy of a draper was 40.Bosses left workplaces unsafe. Even if they were fined it wouldn't matter, it was only around 10 CENTS because judges were also manufacturersFactories were crowded, hot and humid in summer, the opposite in winter.Children were exploited as cheap labour in many trades. They often worked in dangerous conditions and payed far less than older men who worked.Women didn't work and even if they did, they were payed as little as 50% of a man's wage.Reasons for FederationFactors that assisted Federation:Growing National Nationalism- By 1890's, nearly 75% of the population had been born in Australia.Better Communications- By 1850's the telegraph had been linked to all capital cities.Influential- Strong supporters of Federation such as Parkes (NSW), Turner (Vic), Kingston (SA), Forrest (WA), and Braddon (TAS), all contributed to the success of the movement.Defence against countries such as France, Germany etc. i.e. A united country could only defend the whole of Australia. The Russian presence in the Pacific. British Navy was a long way away from Australia.A British government report produced...

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