Study Notes For A Western Civilization (World History) Class, Part 2.

4939 words - 20 pages

Karl MarxMarx tells everyone that communism is here, and is going to take over. After getting kicked out of everywhere else, Marx went to England and lived there for 35 years. He went to the British Museum everyday. In 1859, he wrote Das Kapital, but the workers couldn't understand it because it was too tough to read. Marx had 5 major theories. First, the Theory of Economic interpretation of history; everything in history is done through economics. Second, the Theory of class struggle; social classes hate each other, and continue to hate each other. Third, Psychological alienation; everybody becomes a "wage slave", meaning that everyone has to work in order to eat. People are angry about the situation that they are living in. Fourth, the Dialectic; it consists of a way of thinking and a cyclical theory of history. Marx believed that every historical era has a dominating economic force. There are 4 parts to the cycle: the Thesis, the Anti-thesis, the Confrontation, and the synthesis. Last, the Inevitability of the Socialist Revolution. Which states that while Capitalism is dominant, and Socialism is born. As time goes on, both will get stronger. Capitalism will start to get weaker, and eventually destroy itself. Once there is a monopoly, millions of people will be out of work. There will be so much uprising that people will kill the Capitalist, and well trained groups of communists will then take over.Darwinism, Racism, NationalismNationalism is a love for your country based on five things: a common history, culture, language, bloodline, and geographic location. Nationalism was considered the biggest problem in the world.Charles Darwin came up with the theory of evolution. He published a book called The Origin of Species, which explained how evolution could have happened. People got really upset about the book. Herbert Spencer created Social Darwinism. He said that "all living creatures are in competition, including humans. You may have to cheat a little to survive." Spencer also said that "some organisms are more highly evolved than others." If this is true, then some humans may be more evolved than others.Most racism in Europe is towards Jewish people. Some countries welcomed them, but some didn't. There were always anti-Jewish feelings in Europe, but racism didn't get popular in Europe until the 19th Century. It was started by Gobineu, a Frenchman, who wrote a book that examined race. He believed that there were 3 races on the earth: Caucasians, Negroids, and Mongoloids. He believed that Caucasians were great, and Negroids liked to dance and were good athletes. He was worried about the Mongoloids, because there were so many of them.The Aryan Myth was based on a fact. The myth was started by Germans. It goes something like this: At the dawn of civilization, in India lived a tribe of blonde hair, blue eyed giants and they came and civilized all of Europe, but they ended up marrying the local people, and ruined the Aryan Race. Only two groups were...

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