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Study Notes For A Western Civilizations Class, Part 1.

5370 words - 21 pages

*Old Babylonian EmpireThe code of Hammurabi functioned under the Babylonian Empire, which was "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth." The Gilgamesh Epic was about a man searching for eternal life. While searching for the tree of life, a great flood occurs and he is saved by a man and a woman in an arc. All of the societies in the Old Babylonian Empire were slave based; they did not have technology that saved time. Religion gives us hope in afterlife, and teaches us right from wrong. Religion also explains that which cannot be explained. Most of the societies of this time were polytheistic, and all the gods were anthropomorphic, meaning that they were in human forms.*EgyptThe Egyptian empire last for about 3,000 years, and for the first 1,200 years they did not have an army. They were surrounded by natural boundaries like the Mediterranean Sea, the Sahara Desert, and the Arabian Desert, which made the country easy to defend. Egyptians did not own slaves, therefore free men and woman built the pyramids. The Nile River did two things for the Egyptians: it Flooded every year and brought fertile soil into the country; and their calendar was based on this flooding. The Egyptian Pharaoh was considered to be a god, and they often married their sisters. The Egyptians also developed a form of writing called hieroglyphics, which they used mostly, and they also had an alphabet. They also developed paper from the papyrus plant. In 1750BC, Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos, no one knows who they were, but they appeared to be oriental. In 1425BC, Amenhotep IV decided that there was only one god. This was a god for everybody, not just the Egyptian people. Amenhotep was replaced by his brother, King Tut.*IsraelitesThree major religions originated from Israel: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Jacob and Leah & Rachel's sons formed the 12 tribes of Israel. The Northern 10 tribes called themselves Israel, the Southern 2 were Judah. The Ten Commandments given by God were placed in the Arc of the Covenant. The Kingdom of Israel was led by King David, who was replaced by his son Solomon. Solomon decided to build a temple to put the Arc of the Covenant in. The temple was built in Jerusalem, and the ruins are now the Wailing Wall. The Assyrians attacked the North and made them slaves; after that they disappear from history. The Babylonians capture Judah, and make them their slaves, The Hebrew slaves, however, spy for the Persians. The Persians then attack the Babylonians, destroying the temple, and either losing or destroying the Arc of the Covenant.*SpartaThe entire country of Sparta was geared toward war. There were three social classes: the Helots, or the slaves; the Neighbors (Free men and woman, but not Spartans); and Similars (a true Spartan). At the age of 20, men had to enlist in the Army, but they couldn't marry until they were 30. Women, however, could marry when they were 20. When all Spartan babies are 2 months old they were examined by the elders. If the...

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