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Study Notes On Western Influence And Pressure In The History Of China And Japan In The 19th And 20th Century

850 words - 3 pages

PART 1Western influence and pressure in the history of China and Japan in the 19th and 20th Century should not be dismissed, because they are often the impetus, if not the main driving force, of important internal events. China and Japan's own situation and internal forces, then, temper how each country responds to these Western pressures and influences. China, already under the yoke of the Manchurian Jun Hsien rule, wrestled repeatedly with Western values. Japan, on the other hand, perhaps more self secure with its wholly indigenous culture, could adapt Western methods while preserving Japanese values with less violence.Opium War (1840s, China) 1st real source of pressure.China:* Before this, mutual respect caused no pressure. Start of era of disrespect. West starts to see China as barbaric.* Foreign criminals let off lightly. Condescension.* Top traders smuggle opium to redress balance of payments. Govts didn't intervene.* China in turn sees this disrespect as barbaric. Sees Feng Chien West as militaristic and superstitious cos of religion (contrast to Jun Hsien)* Lin Tse Hsu forced to retaliate. In vain.* Led to bitter unequal treaties. Forced to open up more ports for trade they didn't need, and had to grant extrality.* After this, continual Jun Hsien - Fen Chien value clash. Mutual disrespect.Japan:* Perry arrives in 1853, just after Opium War.* Japanese also Fen Chien.* Indigenous (no struggle of nationalism)* Fears Western control after seeing terrible defeat of China, and wants Western respect* Inherent tradition of borrowing and copying in culture* Allows for adapting of Western methods, not necessarily with their values.China: Wrestling between Jun Hsien and Western values extreme. All or nothing.Taiping Rebellion (1850s - 1860s)* Hung Hsiu Ch'uan's Christian driving force is 1st major borrowing of ideas for a revolution, and it was the biggest Chinese revolution in 19th C.* Wanted to transcend Chinese past and set up Christianity in China. This new ideology gave them belief in change.* Effective army and mobilization cam from Western Feng Ch'ien values.* Western monotheism as opposed to Chinese atheism or Eastern pantheism.* Sense of nationalism, as opposed to current culturalism pushed by foreign Manchu rulers.* 1st introduction to equality for women. The Hakkas mobilized more women than any other rebellion. Women got equal land and could sit for exams.* Hung took the Feng Chien title of King , rather than emperor.* But with Jun Hsien history although it was declining, couldn't integrate Christianity and revival of decentralized Feng Chien.Self Strengthening Movt (1870s - 1880s)* Used Western methods and tech, but fought their ideals that were surfacing in China.* "Enrich the State and strengthen...

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