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Study Of Living Things And The Scientific Study Of Life

2594 words - 11 pages

The process of change that transformed life on Earth is called evolution. A result of evolution would be an organism's adaptations to its environment such as adaptations to conserve water. The world is full of different organisms who came from a single celled ancestor. We study all of these living things and the scientific study of life and living things is called is called biology.
Everything is organized into different levels in a hierarchy. The first level is the biosphere which is basically the whole world. The next level is ecosystems which include living and nonliving things. Next is communities which contains many different types of species. The next level is populations then there are organisms which are individual living things. In every organism there are usually organ and organ systems which then break down into the next level of tissues. Tissues in turn are broken down into cells which break down into organelles, atoms, and then to molecules which is the lowest level.
In the world there are so many different types of cycles and processes that occur and the goal of science is to understand natural phenomena. In science we also use different forms of technology and we use it to apply scientific knowledge for the same specific purpose. Another big thing that is an important factor in this world if energy and living organisms transform energy from one form to another. In an ecosystem, energy usually starts out as light and then ends in heat.
The basic unit of life is a cell which is also the basic unit of an organism's function and structure. There are two types of cells which are eukaryotic and prokaryotic. A prokaryotic cell doesn't have a nucleus but has a nucleoid which is where it contains its genetic material. A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and is bigger than a prokaryotic cell because it has more organelles that have a specific. The genetic material that is inside of a cell is mostly chromosomes which is DNA. DNA is the substance of genes which are the units of inheritance that transmits from parents to offspring. Each chromosome has a strand of DNA which has a lot of genes which are the units of inheritance that transmits info from parents to offspring. Genes encode information for building proteins. There are two types of acids that are in a cell and they are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The two both have pyrimidines and purines. Both RNA and DNA have adenine, guanine, and cytosine but only DNA has thymine and RNA has uracil. The that they link together is that adenine always links with thymine and cytosine links with guanine but in RNA instead of adenine linking with thymine it links with uracil. Each strand links with the other and they both are antiparallel complimentary. Another rule that it always follows is that a purine always links with a pyrimidine; a urine never links with another purine or a pyrimidine with another pyrimidine. DNA has two strands and is a right handed double helix while...

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