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Study Of Waste To Energy Essay

2110 words - 9 pages

1.2.1. Waste Collection
Waste collection is licensed and managed by the National Environment Agency. The public waste collection in Singapore is divided into nine sectors, managed by four licensed Public Waste Collectors.
The Public Waste Collectors are responsible for the collection of waste from residential and trade premises in Singapore, and are also required to provide recycling services under the National Recycling Program. For commercial and industrial premises, the waste is collected separately by licensed general waste collectors.

Figure 2: 9 Sectors of Waste Collection [ NEA, 2014 ]
1.2.2. Waste Recycling
Waste that is not disposed of, is sent for recycling. Recycling saves ...view middle of the document...

About 90% of waste disposed is incinerated and 10% is landfilled.
Name of Incineration Plant Expected Years in Operation Capacity
( tonnes/d ) Capacity
( tonnes/year )
Ulu Pandan Incineration plant 1979 - 2009 1,100 0.4015 million
Tuas Incineration Plant 1986 to 2018 1,700 0.6205 million
Senoko Incineration Plant 1992 to 2024 2,400 0.8760 million
Tuas South Incineration Plant 2000 to 2030 3,000 1.095 million
Keppel Seghers Tuas Waste-to-Energy Plant 2009 to 2034 800 0.292 million
Table 1 : Incineration Pants in Singapore [ NEA, 2009 ]

Figure 4: Semakau Landfill ( From 1999, Capacity 63 million m3 )

1.3. Challenge & Strategies
1.3.1. Challenge
With the increase in waste generation due to population and economic growth, the projected lifespan of the Semakau Landfill would be about 35 to 40 years, and additional incineration plants would have to be built every 7 to 10 years.This poses a challenge as it is difficult to find land for the construction of new incineration plants and landfills in land-scarce Singapore.In addition, high cost is involved in the construction of new waste disposal facilities.
1.3.2. Waste Management Strategy
a. Waste Minimization – towards zero waste
Singapore packing agreement to minimise waste generation at source; Design/use less packaging; Use packaging that can be recycled.
b. Recycling
Recycling of industrial and commercial waste; Recycling of Domestic Waste
c. Waste to Energy
Incineration, volume reduction
d. Reduce Waste to Landfill – towards zero landfill
Trial use IBA in road construction completed. Reuse of incineration bottom ash. Recycling of non-incinerable waste.
2. Methodologies and Approaches
As planning for sustainable municipal solid waste management has to address several inter-connected issues such as landfill capacity, environmental impacts and financial expenditure, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand the dynamic nature of their interactions. A system dynamics approach designed here attempts to address some of these issues by fitting a model framework in Singapore, and running a forecast simulation. The dynamic system developed in this study incorporates the complexity of the waste generation and management process to some extent which is achieved through a combination of simpler sub-model that are linked together to form a whole. The impact of decision options on the generation of waste in the city, on the remaining landfill capacity, and on the economic cost or benefit actualized by Plasma Gasification processing options are explored through this approach, providing valuable insights into the urban waste-management process.
The formulation of the System Dynamics simulation model consists of the following steps:
a. Identifying the system and its subsections;
b. Identifying the dynamic problem and generating the reference modes;
c. Determining the model components and the interrelationships among the components;
d. Constructing of the influence diagrams and the stock-flow...

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