This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Study On Water Demand In Lebanon

1793 words - 8 pages

These days, environmental attention improved due to climatic change and loss of water resources. In comparison to other nations in the Middle East, Lebanon has a relatively optimistic position regarding water sources, but it is expected that Lebanon will also face a water lack within the next 10-15 years. Therefore, the enhancement in the control of water source is basically essential. A water source control plan is still missing, and there is no extensive environmental law obtaining the security of water sources.
Due to these circumstances, a water demand analysis including fire demand was carried out for the current time and for the next 30 years.

A - Study site and collected data:
1)Barsa General Description:
“Barsa” the name of the Lebanese town is derived from the Aramaic language and this name means “the irrigation place”.
Barsa's ancient vestiges include sarcophagi & sculpted stones, whereas the modern vestiges include the remains of the Mustapha Barbar Agha Citadel, built over the ruins of an older citadel. This town is recognized by the green fields and olives & oversees El Mina bay and the mountains of Ehden and Bcharré. This region is also bordered by important areas of North Lebanon such as Tripoli, Zgharta, Chekka. Barsa has a landscape that is well-known for its beautiful views of the snow-topped mountains and the sea. In addition Barsa faces serious problems in defending its environment due to the disorganization of the acts of drilling wells and the lack of drainage systems and wastewater treatment.
Regardless that this is a small town, Barsa embraces an essential educational institution that became more than known in Lebanon and worldwide which is the Notre Dame University (North Campus). Moreover, it includes around seven companies, shopping stores and car station.
2)Barsa Geography:
The area of this town is 3.43 Km2 and is situated in the north of Lebanon. The latitude of this town is 34.38 (34° 22' 60 N) whereas for the longitude is 35.83 (35° 49' 60 E) and the elevation of this town is 160 m above the sea level

Figure 1: Barsa as viewed on the map
3)Barsa Geology:
Previous studies were done by the ministry of public works; the subsoil is useable to obtain rocks for construction: surface rocks, gravels and sands are existent. As a consequence this prospective represents a severe risk for slope failure and stability issues. On the other hand, the porous soil and the large number of aquifers permit the drilling of wells. (Municipality of Barsa, 2014)

Figure 2: Satellite Overview of Barsa
4)Barsa Climate:
This town is categorized by a hot and almost rain-free summer, agreeable fall and spring, and cool, rainy winter. August is the hottest month of the year with a monthly average high temperature of 31°C, and January and February are the coldest months with a monthly average low temperature of 8°C. During the afternoon and evening the predominant wind direction is from the west,...

Find Another Essay On Study on Water Demand in Lebanon

Speech on Water Fluoridation in Washington State

1297 words - 5 pages Speech on Water Fluoridation in Washington State 1._STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Washington State has a current public policy on the issue of fluoridation, which is too general a statement to unite the state and its population on the issue. This situation was witnessed recently when the city of East Wenatchee was split in its opinion on the issue. Situations such as these are occurring all over the state of Washington. Washington needs a sound

Summarize an article on supply and demand and explain why changes occurred in supply, demand, and price

889 words - 4 pages States and other countries due to increasing gasoline prices such as, reduce purchases of "fuel-thirsty sports utility vehicles and full-sized pickups in the United States, Canada and other countries." The sales of small cars, hybrid vehicles, and diesel engine vehicles, which get better gas mileage, have increased since 2004. There is now an increasing demand for SUVs that are more fuel efficient then past "gas guzzlers." goes on to

The Impact of Changing Water Availability on Food Supply: Egypt as a Case Study

3711 words - 15 pages Africa is a great country to study the impacts of changing availability on food supply. This is because its changing supply of water over many centuries shows distinct patterns in the effect of water supply on food supply. Situated in North Africa, Egypt lies in the desert and as such has dry weather conditions all year round. The Nile is the primary source of water for Egypt but it is not the only country dependent on it. The Nile River related

Environmental Policy in Russian Cities of 1870 – 1914: A Case-Study of Water Management in Novgorod

1743 words - 7 pages equipped with the sand filters in 1907. But a presence of yellowish color and sediment in tap water was indicating on insufficient purification degree. Analysis of tap water was not made due to lack of bacteriological and chemical laboratories. The water supply organization had some disadvantages. Among it was a deviation from sanitary norms of daily water consumption for each person in the city at 3-4 times, and an imperfect pipeline design: one

Environmental Policy in Russian Cities of 1870 – 1914: A Case-Study of Water Management in Novgorod

2014 words - 9 pages other sewage, as well as throw garbage on the streets, river shores, yards and ditches. In the same year, “The compulsory rules of Novgorod City Duma for Novgorod people on sanitary issues,” where the regulation rules of the work of water carriers were first presented, was approved. Water carriers had to take water only in special named places: the city or private pumping stations and valves, commercial bathhouses, at places established by town


1564 words - 7 pages . One possible solution would be to raise funds to meet some of the costs in running these water improvement programs from the beneficiaries. The immediate challenge however remains that it is not known what would be the appropriate fee that would be charged to these beneficiaries and also what socio-economic factors of beneficiaries would be crucial in the designing of these programs. This therefore, justifies the need for an empirical study on

Experimental study of force convective heat transfer of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

715 words - 3 pages rate and nanofluid concentration. Maximum increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient was about 29% which was occurred at 2 vol.% of nanofluid. They also proposed a correlation for Nusselt number in the turbulent flow regime in the microchannel. In this study, local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a rectangular MCHS were experimentally measured in the laminar flow regime. In these experiments, we focused on the effect of flow rate and nanofluid concentration on the heat transfer coefficient in the channel entrance.

Case Study on Being Bilingual in America

3037 words - 12 pages Case Study on Being Bilingual in America The participant was my daughter, Amy. As soon as she arrived in Hawaii, USA, from Mainland China in July 1998, I began observing how she reacted to the new environment and how she adjusted to it. Over a five-month period (July-November, 1998) I kept a journal of what she did (about 35,000 words either in English or in Chinese), sometimes on the spot and sometimes upon recollection, and tape-recorded

Impacts of Air and Water Pollution on Humans in Bangkok, Dhaka, and Mexico

842 words - 3 pages With the development of technology, over-consumption and inadequate emissions of waste have a considerable impact on the air, water, forests and wildlife, which leads to inevitable detriment to human life. This essay will give an overview of the sources as well as the negative impacts of air and water pollution on humans in three cities, Bangkok, Dhaka and Mexico, and also discuss the governments’ strategies and the effectiveness to tackle the

Experimental Investigation on Natural Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Silver/Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure

1275 words - 6 pages pipe is made up by the glass wool. To add sufficient level and remove the excess amount of the test fluid, a draft tube made of copper is fixed on the piston. The test section is ready for the experimental investigation. Works Cited C.J. Ho*, W.K. Liu, Y.S. Chang, C.C. Lin, Natural convection heat transfer of alumina- water nanofluid in vertical square enclosures: An experimental study, International Journal of thermal Sciences 49 (2010) 1345

Water and Air Pollution Analysis - This is a short essay on pollution issues in Dayton, Ohio

544 words - 2 pages . On this day, the city lowers bus fares to get people to ride the bus instead of driving. Also, they stress carpooling and have cab discounts of up to eighty-percent for employees, in the Dayton area.Underground petroleum storage tanks has polluted Ohio's drinking water. These leaks are of major concern because Petroleum products have chemicals and substances that cause many health problems, including cancer and brain/heart/lung damage. Young

Similar Essays

Arab Women Freedom And The Dress Code : Case Study Of Women In Lebanon, Morocco, And Saudi Arabia

2690 words - 11 pages should work on finding solutions for deeper issues such as their situation as members inside the society.In fact, we realize that the problem of being recognized as indispensable component of the development of the nation exist even in a country where the women are more liberated. Indeed, in Lebanon, we notice that women have more rights and live freely than the Saudi Arabian women. Even if the two countries are Arab and have almost the same cultural

Applications And Advances In Video On Demand

1990 words - 8 pages Applications and Advances in Video on Demand Video on Demand (VOD) has been actively pursued for the past several years. VOD would accomplish three distinct purposes in terms of community service. These include interactive distance learning, video conferencing, and entertainment. While it is the first two, video conferencing and interactive distance learning, which would serve to the best advantage in terms of education and business; it is

Supply And Demand In Agriculture Sector Case Study Of Wheat's Supply And Demand

2749 words - 11 pages Supply and Demand in Agriculture SectorSupply and Demand in Agriculture SectorIntroductionThe agricultural sector is a very unique one in economics because it displays characteristics in terms of the demand for and the supply of its goods not seen in any other sector. The main principal characteristics of demand are that it is both income and price inelastic and all the characteristics of perfect competition market apply on it. Demand has high

Essay On Water Scarcity In History, Water Scarcity In Africa, And Possible Sollutions To Water Scarcity

1649 words - 7 pages consume water, discard it, poison it and waste it without considering the consequences. Supplying enough water in the right quantity, at the right time and in the right place has always been a concern. All of life depends on water. It is as important to life as air, food and sunlight. For this reason water has always played an important role in civilizations throughout history. People can live for days without food but will not survive for very