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Study On Water Demand In Lebanon

1793 words - 8 pages

Introduction
These days, environmental attention improved due to climatic change and loss of water resources. In comparison to other nations in the Middle East, Lebanon has a relatively optimistic position regarding water sources, but it is expected that Lebanon will also face a water lack within the next 10-15 years. Therefore, the enhancement in the control of water source is basically essential. A water source control plan is still missing, and there is no extensive environmental law obtaining the security of water sources.
Due to these circumstances, a water demand analysis including fire demand was carried out for the current time and for the next 30 years.

A - Study site and collected data:
1)Barsa General Description:
“Barsa” the name of the Lebanese town is derived from the Aramaic language and this name means “the irrigation place”.
Barsa's ancient vestiges include sarcophagi & sculpted stones, whereas the modern vestiges include the remains of the Mustapha Barbar Agha Citadel, built over the ruins of an older citadel. This town is recognized by the green fields and olives & oversees El Mina bay and the mountains of Ehden and Bcharré. This region is also bordered by important areas of North Lebanon such as Tripoli, Zgharta, Chekka. Barsa has a landscape that is well-known for its beautiful views of the snow-topped mountains and the sea. In addition Barsa faces serious problems in defending its environment due to the disorganization of the acts of drilling wells and the lack of drainage systems and wastewater treatment.
Regardless that this is a small town, Barsa embraces an essential educational institution that became more than known in Lebanon and worldwide which is the Notre Dame University (North Campus). Moreover, it includes around seven companies, shopping stores and car station.
2)Barsa Geography:
The area of this town is 3.43 Km2 and is situated in the north of Lebanon. The latitude of this town is 34.38 (34° 22' 60 N) whereas for the longitude is 35.83 (35° 49' 60 E) and the elevation of this town is 160 m above the sea level

Figure 1: Barsa as viewed on the map
3)Barsa Geology:
Previous studies were done by the ministry of public works; the subsoil is useable to obtain rocks for construction: surface rocks, gravels and sands are existent. As a consequence this prospective represents a severe risk for slope failure and stability issues. On the other hand, the porous soil and the large number of aquifers permit the drilling of wells. (Municipality of Barsa, 2014)

Figure 2: Satellite Overview of Barsa
4)Barsa Climate:
This town is categorized by a hot and almost rain-free summer, agreeable fall and spring, and cool, rainy winter. August is the hottest month of the year with a monthly average high temperature of 31°C, and January and February are the coldest months with a monthly average low temperature of 8°C. During the afternoon and evening the predominant wind direction is from the west,...

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