Over the last ten years, sub-Saharan Africa has come across economic growth of coarsely five percent per year. Today, 21 African countries are considered “middle income”(Christiaensen and Devarajan). Regardless of strong growth, the impact on poverty is much less than hoped. Today, many countries in Africa add up among the world’s poorest. To tackle this poverty problem the collective prescription is economic development. Economic development refers to the continuous actions of policy makers and societies that encourage the standard of living and economic health of a precise area. It is policy involvement with aims of economic and social well being of people. “Economic development conveys a down-to-earth aspiration: to have clean water, decent schools, and health facilities; to produce larger harvests and more manufactured goods; to have access to the consumer goods which people elsewhere consider a normal part of life (Cooper).”
Africa has faced many internal and external limitations in attempting to improve poverty and promote development. During the 1940’s, development economists were wanted by African governments and aid agencies. The field gave logical nourishment to the idea that poor regions could think towards their future without defeating the global order. Before the new development economists had united their place in the institution, they were challenged by economists who used parallel scholarly tools to make a contradictory argument. That argument was that the international economy, made the rich richer and the poor poorer (Cooper). This mean that underprivileged countries were to distance themselves from global markets.
Government corruption was a big constraint that Africa faced. African regimes and nongovernmental organizations requested rich countries and worldwide organizations for support through grants and low-interest loans. The pressure of state development overlapped with many politicians’ suspicion of groups within their countries, farmers’ associations and labor unions in particular. “The irony of the period 1960-1973 is that post colonial regimes, intent on establishing the autonomy of the nation, reinforced the externally dependent colony of the colonial era. Africa’s small scale farmers of the 1940s and 1950s were a model of modest expansion, adapting kinship and clientage and other forms of social relations within indigenous societies to channel labor and other resources into export agriculture (Cooper). A class of reasonably rich farmers furthered investment in transport, marketing, and banking, and they used their political impact for spending on education and other services.
Africa faced limitations within agriculture and in blockages of national and global economic arrangements (Cooper). “Colonial states in the 1940s and 1950s spent vast sums of money on centrally directed agricultural schemes, such as the cotton and rice systems of the Niger valley in what is now Mali or the “ground nut scheme” to grow...