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Submitted For Medical/Surgical Nursing Course. This Is A Health Sciences Essay Regarding Super Infections/Antibiotic Resistant Infections.

1199 words - 5 pages

What is a Super Infection?Super infection results from organisms that become resistant to the drugs previously used to treat them. This condition has been speculated to be caused, in part, by the over use/misuse of antibiotic therapy.Transmission:Primarily transmitted by colonized/infected patients and health care workers and contaminated equipment.Inadequate hand washing by hospital staff has been implicated in the spread of these pathogens among patients at risk.A factor implicated in the transmission of MRSA is transfer of nursing home residents to acute care hospitals and then returning to the nursing home.The spread of VRE has been associated with not only health care workers, not also the use of contaminated patient care equipment such as electronic thermometers.Who's at risk?The older adultPatients with debilitating illnessesPatients with invasive lines and tubes are at an increased for MRSAProlonged use of indwelling urinary catheters, endotracheal tubes, mechanical ventilation, and vascular access lines also increase the risk significantly.Types of Super-infectionsMRSA:MRSA is a mutation of very common bacterium spread easily by direct person to person contact. MRSA incidence is now epidemic in nursing homes and LTCs as well as community hospitals. MRSA is a gram-positive bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus normally found on the skin.Etiology:Individuals where the natural defense system breaks down, such as after an invasive procedure, trauma or chemotherapy the normally benign bacteria can invade tissue. Proliferate and cause infection. Today up to 90% of S. aureus isolates or strains are penicillin resistant and about 27% of all S. aureus isolates are resistant to methicillin. These strains may resist cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, erythromycin, tetracycline and clindamycin. MRSA has become prevalent with the overuse of antibiotics.Diagnosis:MRSA can be cultures from the suspected site with the appropriate culture method. I.e. swab, sputum and blood.Treatment:Treatment is dependent on the site of the infection. MRSA colonization in the nares the doctor may order topical musirocin applied to the nostrils. Other protocols involve combining topical agents with oral antibiotics. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for treatment. Serious adverse effects of vancomycin are itching which may lead to anaphylactic shock. Rifampin may also be used in conjunction with vancomycin.Nursing Considerations:Those in close contact with the patient should wash hands before and after patient care and contact with an antiseptic soap such as chlorahexidine. This is of special significance to health care workers, as studies have shown that MRSA can live for up to three hours on their hands. Contact isolation precautions must be strictly adhered to. Private rooms and dedicated equipment along with thorough disinfection must also be utilized. Patients that are both infected with MRSA may be roomed together and therefore provided the staff to care for them....

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