Augustus; Question of Succession;
· He had no sons, only a daughter Julia
· 23bc life scare when he fell ill
· Inheritance of political prestige maintains prestige of family
· Force his daughter Julia to marry his nephew Marcellus and then when he died forced her to marry Agrippa, and then Tiberius.
· He adopted Gaius and Lucius Caesar, Lucius dies so he adopted Tiberius.
· He gave potential successors positions of power and allowed them to bypass the cursus honorum; for example Gaius and Lucius attended senate at 15 and Marcellus was allowed to take all offices and elected aedile at 18.
Tacitus – “[Augustus] intended to heighten his own glory by the contrast with on so inferior” in regards to Tiberius. As Suetonius wrote; “Augustus weighed Tiberius’ good qualities against the bad, and decided that the good tipped the scale” He had been a loyal and efficient deputy to Augustus before and after his adoption and had achieved great military and diplomatic success along the northern frontiers and in the east.
The favourite of his stepsons, Drusus, died so Tiberius Claudius Nero was adopted as Augustus’ son in AD4. He then became known as Tiberius Caesar Augustus. His powers were to be conferred on him by the senate. The consuls, the commander of the PG, the senate, the knights and the people swore allegiance to Tiberius and the senate conferred the principate on him.
Tiberius; Question of Succession;
Tacitus; “Tiberius feared that to nominate a successor outside the imperial family might bring contempt and humiliation upon Augustus’ memory”. Tiberius Gemellus (Tiberius’ grandson) was too young to become princep. H/e, Gaius (grandnephew of Tiberius) was ‘in the prime of early manhood’ (Tacitus)
Gemellus died in 37AD, the same yr as Tiberius. And the other candidate, Claudius was considered last choice as his “weak-mindedness was an objection” (Tacitus) Gaius on the other hand retired to Capri with Tiberius when he was 19. Also, he had the support of Macro (the leader of the Praetorian Guard who succeeded Sejanus) It is said that Macro insisted Tiberius; death to help Gaius, by ordering hum to be smothered.
According the Tacitus Arruntuis predicted an “even grimmer slavery ahead”. This is the idea that it would be impossible to have a decent and honest princep due to Gaius’ age, criminal upbringing, and the influence of Macro. Macro declared Gaius emperor, and this seemed like a ‘dream come true’ according to Suetonius as he was the son of Germanicus (Tiberius and Germanicus had problems getting along). The senate conferred on him absolute power, and made Tiberius’ will invalid so his grandson could not become joint air with Gaius as Tiberius intended.
Gaius’ Madness and Death;
After Gaius fell ill, it is said by Suetonius that his personality and behaviour was changed as a result of it. H/e, Tacitus disagrees as he thinks at an early age “Caligula could not control his natural brutality.’ ...