Sudamericana Essay

9151 words - 37 pages

Enero 2008 Reimpresión R0801E-E
Las cinco fuerzas competitivas que le dan forma a la estrategia
por Michael E Porter

Tomar conciencia de estas cinco fuerzas puede ayudar a una empresa a comprender la estructura del sector en el cual compite y elaborar una posición que sea más rentable y menos vulnerable a los ataques.
n esencia, el trabajo del estratega es compren- der y enfrentar la competencia. Sin embargo, los ejecutivos suelen definir la competencia de una
forma demasiado estrecha, como si fuera algo que ocu- rriera sólo entre los competidores directos actuales. No obstante, la competencia por las utilidades va más allá de los rivales establecidos de un sector e incluye a cuatro otras fuerzas competitivas: los clientes, los proveedores, los posibles entrantes y los productos substitutos. La riva- lidad extendida, que se genera como consecuencia de las cinco fuerzas, define la estructura de un sector y da forma a la naturaleza de la interacción competitiva dentro de un sector.
Por muy distintos que en un comienzo puedan parecer entre sí los diferentes sectores, los impulsores subyacentes de las utilidades son los mismos. Por ejemplo, podría pa- recer que la industria automotriz global no tiene nada en
Las cinco fuerzas com- petitivas que le dan a la estrategia por Michael E Porter
E común con el mercado internacional de las obras de arte, o con el fuertemente regulado sector salud en Europa. Pero para comprender la competencia y la rentabilidad de cada uno de estos sectores, uno debe analizar la estruc- tura subyacente de cada sector en términos de las cinco fuerzas competitivas (vea el recuadro "Las cinco fuerzas que dan forma a la competencia del sector").
Si las fuerzas son intensas, como lo son en los sectores de las líneas aéreas, textiles y hotelería, prácticamente ninguna empresa obtiene retornos atractivos sobre sus in- versiones. Si las fuerzas son benignas, como por ejemplo en los sectores de software, bebidas y artículos de aseo personal, muchas empresas son rentables. La competitividad y la rentabili- dad determinan la estructura de un sector; ésta no depende de si el sector ofrece productos o servicios, si es emergente o maduro, de alta tecnología o baja tecnología, si está regulado o no lo está. Aun cuando una multitud de factores -incluyendo las condicio-
Copyright 2007 Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved. Todos los derechos reservados.

nes climáticas y los ciclos de negocios- pueden afectar la rentabilidad de un sector en el corto plazo, es la estructura del sector, la cual se mani- fiesta en las fuerzas competitivas, la que deter- mina la rentabilidad del sector en el mediano y largo plazo (vea el recuadro "Las diferencias en la rentabilidad de los sectores").
La comprensión de las fuerzas competitivas, y sus causas...

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