Sudan, in ancient times was the kingdom of Nubia. Nubia was Egyptian, ruled around 2600 B.C. Sudan has had quite a diverse and interesting past shaping the country to what we now call Sudan. From the civil, war of the National Islamic Front and the People’s Liberation Army to the discovery of oil. Southern and Northern Sudan is rich in history, culture, and population diversity. I picked Sudan to learn more about my friends, and to put meaning to what they went through as United State refugees. We will look at Sudan’s History, culture, and population to better understate the country to date.
Sudan’s history starting around 2600 was the kingdom of Nubia. The Nubian civilization was the Kursh, and that civilization prospered up to 350 A.D when Christion missionaries converted the region to the Christen faith in the 6th century. Arabs at this time had already conquered Egypt and eventually gained control of the area replacing Christianity with their own Muslim faith. In the 1500s people called the Funj conquered most of Sudan; Including the Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer, and Azande. In 1874, the Egyptians reconquered Sudan, ruling it for the next eight years until 1882 when Britain occupied Egypt taking over Sudan in 1898 running the country in conjunction with Egypt becoming known as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan for the next fifty seven years. From 1898 through 1955, the Anglo-Egyptian saw the growing Sudanese nationalists, and in 1953, Anglo-Egyptian granted the Sudanese self-government. On January 1, 1956, the beginning of Sudanese independence was recognized Egypt and Britain. (The Middle East, 2013) (CIA, 2013)
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After the withdraw of Egypt and Britain, Sudan has been run by a number rickety / unstable government groups and military regimes. Numeiri, also spelled Jaʿfar Muḥammad al-Numayrī after graduating from the Sudan Military College in 1952 led many campaigns against southern Sudan rebels, and made many attempts to over through the Sudanese government. In 1666 he graduated from the U.S. Army College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Were in March 1970 he went back to Sudan three years later and over through the regime of Ismāʿīl al-Azharī and was promoted to major general. He became prime minister of the Revolutionary Commandc council (RCC) to be overthrown by a communist coup in July 1971 a year later. In 1977, oil was found in southwest Sudan, and do to civil war the exploration and or development of the deposits found were squashed. Numeiri, elected president with 98.6 present vote a short time later to last from 1971 – 1985. In 1983 Gaafar Mohamed Nimeiri, inaugurated Islamic law aggravating the rift between the Arab north, and Christians in south Sudan. The Differences in religion, and ethnicity erupted in civil war. The Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) were the key players. (BBC News, 2013) (CIA, 2013)
The UN heard of violations to people’s, religious, human rights, and allegations...