Water is one very essential resource for human existence. It accounts for about two thirds of the earth surface with a volume of about 1.4 billion cubic centimeter. About 97 percent of the total earth’s water is salt water from the ocean with only a minute percentage existing as freshwater accessible for direct human consumption. Freshwater is found in lakes, rivers, reservoirs and underground sources some of which are shallow enough to be tapped at an affordable cost. The lack of portable drinking water needs not be overemphasized as more than 1.2 billion people in the world lack access to clean drinking water (UNDP, 2006). The situation is projected to get worse as the needs for water increases due to city development and population growth with an estimate of 1.8 billion people to live in absolute water scarcity by 2025. The arid regions are the most affected with cases of droughts which may occur as a result of consistent lack of rainfall. Sudan is one country that is grossly affected by lack of rainfall with problems of available water supply for its population. This report will examine the fresh water supply issues in Sudan. Also, water supply option such as desalination and groundwater will be evaluated using cost, environmental impacts and its feasibility factor for both methods.
2.0 Background Study on Sudan
Sudan is has a total landmass area of 1,886,068 square Km with an 853 km coastline bordered by the Red Sea. It has a population of about 37.2 million people with about 1.9 million people in Khartoum the capital. Sudan is bordered by these countries; Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Chad. The Nile River runs transverse to the country dividing it into eastern and western halves. Sudan is a generally dry with two deserts areas, the Nubian Desert on the eastern part and the Libyan Desert on the west part which forms the basis of its water issues. There seems to be a gradually changes from desert to semi-desert to savannah down south. The average temperature in Sudan is 52 degree Celsius. The average rainfall in Sudan is generally low Khartoum has a three-month rainy season between July and September with an annual average rainfall of 161 millimeters; Atbarah receives showers in August that produce an annual average of only 74 millimeters. GDP per capita was about below US$ 1,580 between 2009 and 2013. Sudan’s economy is based agricultural and petroleum product. With proven oil reserve of 5 billion barrels (Bell & Xu, 2013). It has a potential of being one of the fastest growing economy.
3.0 Analysis of each options
The two water supply options to be analyzed by this report include desalination and ground water. Desalination involves the conversion of salt water from the sea to fresh water for consumption after passing it through a process. For the operation of desalination plant, a high amount of energy is required to operate and a huge amount of initial investment is needed...