Summary Of Economic Expansion In Tony Juniper's "What's Really Hapening To Our Planet?" Policy Essay

1604 words - 7 pages

Economic expansion (24-37)
Productivity (24/25)
· This section explains the spike in economic production. Beginning in the mid-20th century.
· Innovation throughout the last 200 years has lead to more efficient use of capital, leading to exponential increases in productivity.
· Increased productivity has caused a rise in incomes and quality of life as well as a decline in poverty.
· Economic growth has been steady for the last century.
· A major driver of economic growth is the immense surge in population, which provides more workers and more technology.
· In 2000, economic output was 10 times its 1950 level.
· GDP per capita has also steadily increased.
· We can see that in the 50 years since 1960, the amount of money in the economy per person has tripled.
· As you can see through the graph, there was a sudden spike in global GDP, following the spike in population.
· Share of global output of the Americas and Europe is decreasing, while Asia is rapidly producing a larger share.
· We can see that Africa’s production levels remain low, however it is possible this could change in the future, especially considering its projected population spike.
What is GDP? (26/27)
· GDP is defined as the total value of all the finished goods and services produced within the borders.
· Jupiter will present the expenditure method of measuring GDP, which totals a country’s spending.
· The sum of spending is broken down into four key components:
· Consumer Spending: goods and services bought by individuals and households
· This includes leisure spending and immediate consumption such as food, which both rise along with GDP per capita.
· Investment Spending: spending by companies on assets to enable them to provide goods and services in the future. 
· Investment spending also includes the purchase of new residential houses.
· Company spending can be anything from machinery and production plants to office buildings.
· Government Spending: spending on public services and public sector salaries.
· Government spending can be anything from purchases of military equipment to investing into schools.
· Net Exports: value of goods and services exported minus value imported.
· This definition of GDP is used throughout this section in order to examine certain drivers.
Richer People (28/29)
· Many people are earning more money and have better standards of living, however the gap between the richest and the poorest continues to grow.
· While global GDP per capita is rising, the gap between rich and poor countries is also rising.
· Countries with the largest GDP’s continue to grow, certain countries, such as China, Vietnam, and India, see extreme growth into global players. All the while many countries remain with low spending and low economic output.
· This section makes you think back to the Communist Manifesto.
· Marx: “Accumulation of wealth at one pole is at the same time accumulation of misery, agony of toil, slavery, ignorance, brutality, mental degradation, at the opposite...

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