Question 1 List chemical compositions of 3-4 types of calculi, likely genetic and environmental/behavioral causes/risks factors for each type, and likely form for each type. Calculi are also known as urinary stones. They “Are masses of crystals, protein, or other substances that are a common cause of urinary tract obstruction in adults” (Huether, McCance, 2010, pp. 1368). A variety of factors play a role in the cause of calculi. This includes age, race, and gender, location of where the individual lives, the season that is currently taking place, occupation, hypertension, and many more factors. There are various types of calculi and each has their own chemical compositions.
Calcium oxalate is one of the most common types of calculi. This type of calculi is present in calcium stones. Calcium stones are formed by increased calcium levels in urine and alkaline urine. This specific stone type is associated with hyperoxaluria, which is an inherited disorder that is rare, hypercalciuria, mild renal tubular acidosis and crystal growth inhibitor deficiencies (Huether, McCance, 2010, pp. 1368). Calcium stones are likely genetics but can be influenced environmentally as well. Hypercalciuria, which is a genetic disorder, can cause calcium stones. It is one of the most common ways that calcium stones are formed. Due to hypercalciuria there is an increase of calcium that is present in the urine (Genetic Causes of Kidney Stones, n.d.). With an already increased amount of calcium, it is advised that additional calcium and oxalate intake be avoided. High calcium levels present a risk of hyperparathyroidism (Kidney Stones Health Center, 2011).
Struvite calculi are capable of growing large enough to form straghorn calculus. These calculi form struvite stones. These specific stones “Contain magnesium-ammonium-phosphate as well as varying levels of matrix” (Huether, McCance, 2010, pp. 1368). They form alkaline urine and urease-producing bacterial pathogens called Proteus, Klebsiella, or Pseudomonas, presenting infections like urinary tract infections. Struvite stones are likely to be influenced genetically. If an individual in a family has had kidney stones, it is likely that other family members will as well. Women are at an increased risk for struvite stones as they are more prone to develop urinary tract infections (Huether, McCance, 2010, pp. 1368).
Uric acid calculi are a waste product that is generally expressed and passed out of the body through urine. This specific type of calculi is “A product of biosynthesis of endogenous purines and is secondarily affected by consumption of purines in the diet” (Huether, McCance, 2010, pp. 1368-1369). This calculi form uric acid stones. Generally these stones are caused by increased amounts of uric acid in the urine, which is common in individuals with gouty arthritis. Increased amounts of acidic intake also can cause uric acid stones. Uric acid stones are likely influenced genetically through cystinuria and...