In 'A Modest Proposal', swift has portrayed the 18th century Ireland as plagued with the problem of overpopulation, unemployment, poverty and the exploitation of the labor class by the bourgeoisie(middle class). The same problem being addressed by Karl Marx in sociological labor theories. The course of actions suggested by Swift J is, however, adverse and sets forth an example of a satirical classic piece of literature viewed and analyzed by many people over the centuries. The theme of the essay is suppression and hence deterioration in the state of the Catholic subjects at the hands of their Protestant Landlords and similar conditions pertaining to 1729 in Ireland. These problems were partly due to the Irish Catholics supporting the pretender in Spain who was son of a Catholic Stuart king James II driven out of England by the protestants. Apart from the income disparity the squalor of the Irish is much exploited and exacerbated by the tyrannical English as mentioned by Swift, J in the conclusion of the essay. The mere statement "...we can incur no danger in disobliging ENGLAND", displays the onomatopoeia of the statement by the use of sonic rhetorical devices. Writing England in capital letters suggests how excellent an Englishman considered himself over an Irishman.
The introductory passage is using sheer logic and hence is using the logos appeal by stating solid demographical facts and statistical information, though the following paragraphs stench of sarcasm and drip with irony. The writer is using the logos appeal where introductory facts regarding the deplorable living conditions of the Catholics and the abject poverty are stated. Swift claims that these conditions make passer-by's melancholic hence a logos appeal, that is triggering logic in the reader can be observed. Though, the use of the logos appeal in the introduction is effective and creates a sound base for further argument, facts regarding the malnutrition in children and their poor hygienic conditions could be established more due to the severe health risks these conditions pose.
Swift not only criticizes the English and the Protestant landlords, but also shows contempt of the vegetative Irish who seem incapable of mobilizing on their own towards a mutually beneficial solution to their persisting problem that is according to the author eroding the moral and ethical roots of the Irish society. The notion that mothers can benefit financially by selling their children, shows that how after many failed logical solutions to the problem cheap, easy and illogical solutions have started appearing to be more appropriate. It also shows the ineptitude of the Irish politicians to solve the problems of the state.
In an era of political pamphleteering, where many inapplicable economic solutions were proposed and never implemented, Swift attempts to give a simple solution through hard-edged economic reasoning claiming infant slaughter and the sale of such carcasses as the only...