This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Susser's Three Characteristics To Argue That The Outcome And Exposure Can Only Be Inferred From Epidemiological Studies

1170 words - 5 pages

The scientific method is built on the principle that nothing can ever be proved as definitively true. Rather, once a hypothesis is proposed, evidence can be generated in favor of the hypothesis or in favor of an alternative hypothesis. When enough evidence is gathered in one direction or the other, the original hypothesis is either accepted or debunked in favor of an alternative. As scientific work is always in flux, any previously accepted theory can always be overturned by new evidence.1, 2 Many epidemiologists accept Popper’s thesis that causality can never be truly proven; although, once enough reliable evidence has been accumulated, a causal relationship can be inferred.2
The question of what constitutes a cause is a matter of ongoing inquiry among epidemiologists. Causality is extremely complex and has been described with a number of metaphors, images and guidelines, and has been summarized simply by Susser as “something that makes a difference”.2 A primary objective in epidemiology is to make inferences identifying a causal variable for the outcome of interest. However, these inferences can only be valid if the accumulation of evidence is done within a causal framework, rather than an associational one. A critical description of the difference between associational and causal concepts insists that while an associational relationship can be defined by the distribution of observed variables, a causal relationship cannot be.3 This paper will use the lens of Susser’s three characteristics of a cause, association, time order, and direction to argue that a causal relationship between exposure and outcome can only be inferred from experimental epidemiologic studies. The basis for this argument is an examination of the counterfactual model and an analysis of both observational and experimental study designs and their contributions to epidemiologists’ ability to infer causality.
As true causation in epidemiology can never be observed or definitively proven as in an ideal counterfactual scenario, the use of the best possible proxy of the counterfactual is essential to the validation of inferred causal relationships.4, 5 By using the counterfactual theory in experimental study design, the researcher seeks to mimic as closely as possible two parallel universes in which the same individuals are both exposed and not exposed within the same time dimensions.2, 4 ,5 The potency of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is that participants can be selected with the concept of full comparability4 of the counterfactual model in mind before they are randomly separated into exposed and unexposed groups. These two components, full or close comparability and the random assignment of exposure, make the randomized controlled trial the closest to the counterfactual ideal and most capable of supporting a causal inference.
This susceptibility to bias makes observational study designs further from the ideal counterfactual scenario and threatens the validity of...

Find Another Essay On Susser's Three Characteristics to Argue that the Outcome and Exposure can only be Inferred from Epidemiological Studies

How a Researcher's View on Children Can Influence the Outcome of Research Studies Involving Kids

2834 words - 11 pages needs to be considered when planning research. The gender of the researcher may impact on the research in a number of ways. Gender can be viewed as biologically and genetically determined or as socially constructed. In the latter, particular cultures and societies may differ in how each gender type is viewed. When researching children from different cultures, the researcher needs to be aware that their perspective may differ from the society

Only Three Picture that change Family

1766 words - 8 pages . Where the numbers side shows someone trying to text a message to three people to come down to be with them. While the other part of the phone is a family all on a beach all having fun as one whole family. Everyone has something to do or talk to. Some are talking or eating near the fire; some are about to or just came back from surfing, fishing, and/or swimming. But they do wish that the three that are not there would be there. To enjoy the fun with

Discuss Bazin's idea that 'realism in art can only be achieved through artifice'. What are the implications for film of his approach? Make reference to films in your answers

1570 words - 6 pages reality of ordinary people's life and social change, and the primary function of showing the spectator the real world. By elaborating the objectivity of photography as the rescuer of painting from the obsession of realism, he argued that cinema shared that objectivity in time. (Bazin, 1967:10) Realizing there can only be a representation of reality, and the functions of films as making of 'an ideal world in the likeness of the real world

Three Ways that a Manager can Cope with Negative Emotions

2077 words - 8 pages on the past and energize them to focus on the future. This will be easier for some employees than others, management should point out opportunities that employees may have now and that new responsibilities can increase their value to the organization and assist them in progressing their careers. Process of Conducting the Dismissal Meeting If the organization is going to downsize inform employees that possibility exists, this gives employees

"Are traits transmitted from parents to children physical only or can they be cultural as well?" Explain

583 words - 2 pages Many aspects of human behavior are inherited, these traits can be either physical or cultural: simple features like eye color, and complex processes such as language, temperament, and aggression. Heredity and environment interact in complex ways.We may be genetically predisposed to learn from the environment in certain ways. That is, the ability to learn is inherited, but our environment determines what is learned.Ethnicity is a powerful

To Do or To Argue...That is the Question

1023 words - 4 pages “Health Care Reform” bill. This bill has been revised by many to become a different style than universal health care. It is a national insurance policy that one can purchase. Only time will tell if the debate of universal health care will ever end. What has kept the people of the United States from embracing universal health care? Individual benefits. “The founding fathers’ core principle-- that individual rights and responsibilities trump

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen: Any man who tries to argue Jane Austen's ability to draw characters would be undoubtedly a fool, for the author's talent in that area of prose is hard to match

1775 words - 7 pages -infraction of his character could only be explained by the fact that he cares for Elizabeth more than he ever shows, more even than the reader ever realizes.Taking into consideration Elizabeth's perceptive nature the reader is made to understand the true depth of the relationship between her and her father. It would be impossible for her to grow up without noticing the affection that he felt, and not to benefit from it. Because she is the only

NEANDERTHAL ORIGIN, BEHAVIOR, AND THE CHARACTERISTICS THAT COMPARE AND DIFFERENTIATE THEM FROM HOMO SAPIENS

1934 words - 8 pages populations to search for better resources, such as abundant food supply, fresh water, and refuges that provided better shelter (Rosenberg et al. 2011). If the colonization of a new environment is successful, then over time the population will begin to differentiate. The development of diversity (which can include behavioral, morphological, and genetic variations) can be viewed as the outcome of multiple dispersals (Lahr and Foley 1994). SPECIES

Protecting Children from Exposure to Violence in the Media

768 words - 3 pages the only industrialized country to spend so little on public broadcasting. Canada spends $32.15 per person, Japan spends $17.71, and the United Kingdom spends $38.56. Compare this to the $1.09 the US, and you can see why resources are scarce for nonviolent, highly entertaining television. Finally, recognize that parental supervision and limiting children's exposure to media violence turns a potentially detrimental situation into a learning

Only One Can Be Chosen

1148 words - 5 pages was the mindset for anyone who lived in the cold weather; that is to obviously go somewhere warm. However, on the hand, Kole wanted to go somewhere overflowing with art and history; he wanted a place where he could feed his overwhelming desire to learn. France was just the place. Both places were as two magnets attracting him in opposite directions. It seemed impossible to choose, for both seemed to be pulling at the same intensity. Several

The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is much richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience

598 words - 2 pages out to the problem than they turn for pure theories in books -- obviously, only knowing theory is far from solving a practical problem. In short, knowledge in books is more useful for young people to systematically learning in the first period, but as their knowledge accumulating and experience increasing, the both are mostly combined together and form their special knowledge -- experience, which may be more effective for them to unravel a complex

Similar Essays

Critically Discuss The View That 'universal Welfare Provision Can Only Ever Be Wasteful And Lead To Welfare Dependency'. Give Examples To Illustrate Your Points

2091 words - 8 pages Key Concepts in Social PolicySXP1004Critically discuss the view that 'Universal Welfare provision can only ever be wasteful and lead to welfare dependency'. Give examples to illustrate your points.For this assignment, in the hope of covering the above statement the writer will discuss what the word welfare means and how we came about in the 1940's to implement a modern welfare system. Also, the writer will look how the effects of the thatcher

"The Most Powerful Characters In The Odyssey Are Women." Argue For Or Against This Proposition Using Examples From The Text; Please Limit Evidence To Two Or Three Episodes Only

1179 words - 5 pages "The most powerful characters in The Odyssey are women." Argue for or against this proposition using examples from the text; please limit evidence to two or three episodes only.The word powerful can be looked at in several ways; it can be regarded as strength, knowledge, control, and beauty. All these forms of power are repeatedly illustrated within The Odyssey. A key observation with respect to power is that women are undoubtedly the most

Thurgood Marshall Was Probably The Only Black Leader In American History Who Can Argue That He Defeated Segregation Where It Really Counts, In The Courts

1216 words - 5 pages states. The Constitution of the United States provides the basic rights of American citizens, and laws passed by Congress give additional rights. These rights are called civil rights. They include freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of assembly.Thurgood Marshall is probably one of the most important lawyers of the 20th century. He was probably the only black leader in American History who can argue that he defeated segregation

Why Does Plato Argue That Divine Commands Can Never Be Genuinely Moral Commands? Do You Agree?

823 words - 3 pages ennobling form. It is fitting to think this way, as God is brilliantly clean and glorious in comparison to us. Thus, we see that our fear motivates us to respect God and feel inferior in the sense that we want to please him.God's holy nature can also be used to argue against Plato's idea of morality existing independently of God. Plato suggests that God is able to detect our failures and our wrong doings and thus we treat him as an instrument