Sustainable Sanitation For Urban Slum Essay

4880 words - 20 pages

Sustainable Sanitation for Urban Slum PopulationIntroductionRapid urbanization has led to more than half population in the world lives in the urban area. Since 2007, it was marked for the first time in human history that the most of the global population has been living in cities (UN Habitat 2008), further it is predicted that about 60 % of the world's population will reside in the urban area within the next two decades (UN Habitat 2013). In the developing regions in particular, proportion of the cities' population has risen from 1.4 billion to 2.5 billion people or increased from 35 to 45 per cent from 1990 to 2010 respectively (Jacobsen et al. 2012). Poverty levels seem to increase within increasing of urbanization levels. The World Bank (2008) estimated that about one third of poor people living on less than US2$ per day reside in urban areas. This primarily due to the economic condition of the poor migrant that cause formation of a large number of slums, which growing significantly by more than 20 million per year, or about 40 per cent of the urban population (Baker 2008). The UN Habitat refers it as 'the urbanization of poverty' that the prevalence of poverty move from rural to urban.Table 1. Urban slum dwellers in developing worlds (source: MDGs Report, 2013)

Global urban slum dwellers


650 million


760 million


863 million

This accelerated growth of urban slum has been definitely increased pressure on urban infrastructure. Many cities in the developing world are unable to meet the demand for basic services, including sanitation due to lack of resources (Butala et al. 2010). Hundred of slums in the most developing countries live with minimum access to services or remain unserved where overcrowding is the norm (Isunju, et al. 2010). Failure to provide those basic services increases myriad health risks for the dwellers. Those related illness is one of the main factors that can pull the poor household back into the poverty although they have had place in an informal urban economy. This condition can further hinder their ability to engage with urban economy activities to produce goods or services, since they are considered as important contributors of local economic growth (ICMA 2010).Urban slum growth and its deteriorated conditions of life are major challenge and must be a priority of development in both national and international level (Butala et al. 2010). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has addressed directly the associated issues to reduce the number of population without basic services, particularly access to improved water and sanitation (in target 7C) and significant life improvement of slum dwellers (in target 7D). In term of MDGs target achievement, progress towards water supply and sanitation provision in urban areas could reinforce the achievement of slum improvement (MDGs Report 2013). The MDGs target to improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2015 will depend in part on...

Find Another Essay On Sustainable Sanitation for Urban Slum

The Health and Sanitation Crisis in India

1554 words - 6 pages scavengers to load the body into the back of a police van,” note that the body was not handled by proper medical and sanitation personnel, “so that the constables wouldn’t catch diseases that trash-pickers were known to carry” (Boo 153). Another physical impediment inflicted on the slum occurred with the malnutrition of Sunil. He was worried that he was smaller in height than he should be for his age. This lack of nutrition and healthy environment caused

Slum Ecology Essay

733 words - 3 pages In Chapter 6 of “Planet of Slum” Author, Mike Davis addresses the sanitation conditions that exist in slum living. The chapter also outlines possible health and environmental risk factors associated within highly concentrated poverty areas. Sacrifice of public health for land usage is a very complex tradeoff that is presented within the chapter. Even though disease and famine are likely to occur within the slum, there is consistently a demand

Dharavi Solutions

2291 words - 9 pages million. Many of these urban poor take up residence in the Dharavi slum, situated in the middle of the financial capital. Dharavi offers affordable living with rents as low at four dollars per month and easy access to Mumbai's two main subway lines, making it a highly attractive area for migrants to the city. Dharavi is an evident "squatter city,' meaning that the population residing within Dharavi's boundaries have zero legal ownership of the

Urbanization in Africa

1116 words - 4 pages produce are at ridiculous rate. The question that comes up is whether the current trend in urban growth is sustainable considering the accompanying urban challenges such as unemployment, slum development, poverty and environmental degradation, especially in the developing countries like Africa (The Economist, 2010). Worldwide, especially in Africa, cities are growing rapidly. It is difficult for the majority of urban dwellers, especially the poor to

Effect of Population Density

1216 words - 5 pages periods. Main causes for such urban problems are population growth and the inability of governments to provide basic services such as clean water. The BBC television (2006) announced that the United Nations estimated about 180,000 people are added to the urban areas on a daily bases (BBC website, 2006). Good introduction Urbanization and PovertyIncreased urbanization, especially in developing countries such as China and India, has caused

mega cities essay

1170 words - 5 pages , such as sanitation, electricity etc. This program in turn reduces the cost burden on local government and creates jobs by incorporating the local community into the work. This movement has tried to stop India's slum clearance policy, which frees up NGO's to be able to assist the extreme urban poor. This movement has proved to be extremely successful in improving the shelter situation in Kolkata as it improves the living standard of squatter

Dharavi: Asia´s Largest Slum and Problems

1551 words - 6 pages slum dwellers with no alternative housing options, little is being done to improve the infrastructure of the slums they live in. As such, the quality of life for those living in Mumbai slums is a key housing issue. No example better depicts urban blight at its worse then Mumbai’s largest: Dharavi. Although the 1970’s and 80’s saw policies that helped improve amenity provisions such as water and sanitation in Mumbai slums, policies from the 1990

hhd notes vce unit three and four - copperfield college - school

3440 words - 14 pages areas (characteristics of slums) · many slum spaces are illegal dwellers denied basic rights as a result · violence is significant problem for slums Success to date: · the target for halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water has been met · sanitation coverage has increased · the proportion of people living in urban slums has declined · millions of slum dwellers have more access to improved water sources

Urbanization Trends

527 words - 3 pages areas. According to White D. (2006) "Almost 72 per cent of its urban residents, it calculates, are in slums". Because there is no clear legal basis for building housing areas are not permanent. Streets and alleys are made of compacted refuse. There is no city sanitation so sewage runs in open ditches leading to the ocean. Despite these types of issues urbanization continues in this poor country.African people look to the city for a better life

defined urbanization

9210 words - 37 pages improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. UN-HABITAT, the United Nations Agency for human settlements has, together with all Habitat Agenda Partners (national governments, local authori- ties, civil society, international organisations and urban practitioners), adopted the concept of 'sustainable urbanisation' as a common framework for jointly addressing these issues. The UK Government Department for International

Urban development policies in India

8920 words - 36 pages sustenance of the urban situations of the developing countries like India. Continuing exposure to diverse urban situations and experiences of working in different contexts along with the financial support from the industrialized countries enables them to carry out the 'reforms', which are according to them, pre-requisites for achieving the goals of sustainable development. The National and state governments, in turn, recognize and welcome such

Similar Essays

Sustainable Sanitation For Urban Slum Population

4880 words - 20 pages Sustainable Sanitation for Urban Slum PopulationIntroductionRapid urbanization has led to more than half population in the world lives in the urban area. Since 2007, it was marked for the first time in human history that the most of the global population has been living in cities (UN Habitat 2008), further it is predicted that about 60 % of the world's population will reside in the urban area within the next two decades (UN Habitat 2013). In the

Dharavi A Dark Side Of Mumbai Crescent Slum

967 words - 4 pages dharavi and to investigate an appropriate ideas and solution for the same. Objectives: Unplanned settlements in Mumbai happened due to several reasons: - Population growth. - Migration from rural areas to the city. - High urban land prices. - Weakness of the municipal administration. - Illegal residents. Therefore, main objective I am focusing are; · To study about Eco-sanitation (sustainable sanitation) and its influence in slum due to extreme

Urban Transition The Plague In Disguise

2624 words - 11 pages live in informal settlements, and urban slum areas. These areas suffer from extremely poor sanitation, making them not sustainable enough for people to live in. For example 1 community toilet shared by 300 people. Also, lower sustainability is causing detrimental effects on the city by negatively impacting the climate and environment. High amounts of GHG emission in the environment is a serious matter and shouldn’t be taken lightly. It is capable

Water, Environment And Sanitation Essay

1084 words - 4 pages programmes are designed to contribute to the Millennium Development Goal for water and sanitation: to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe water and basic sanitation. Key strategies for meeting the water, sanitation and hygiene challenges are to: „X     Accelerate access to water and sanitation with particular attention to those currently not reached in both urban and rural areas. Efforts