Sustainable Sanitation for Urban Slum PopulationIntroductionRapid urbanization has led to more than half population in the world lives in the urban area. Since 2007, it was marked for the first time in human history that the most of the global population has been living in cities (UN Habitat 2008), further it is predicted that about 60 % of the world's population will reside in the urban area within the next two decades (UN Habitat 2013). In the developing regions in particular, proportion of the cities' population has risen from 1.4 billion to 2.5 billion people or increased from 35 to 45 per cent from 1990 to 2010 respectively (Jacobsen et al. 2012). Poverty levels seem to increase within increasing of urbanization levels. The World Bank (2008) estimated that about one third of poor people living on less than US2$ per day reside in urban areas. This primarily due to the economic condition of the poor migrant that cause formation of a large number of slums, which growing significantly by more than 20 million per year, or about 40 per cent of the urban population (Baker 2008). The UN Habitat refers it as 'the urbanization of poverty' that the prevalence of poverty move from rural to urban.Table 1. Urban slum dwellers in developing worlds (source: MDGs Report, 2013)
Global urban slum dwellers
This accelerated growth of urban slum has been definitely increased pressure on urban infrastructure. Many cities in the developing world are unable to meet the demand for basic services, including sanitation due to lack of resources (Butala et al. 2010). Hundred of slums in the most developing countries live with minimum access to services or remain unserved where overcrowding is the norm (Isunju, et al. 2010). Failure to provide those basic services increases myriad health risks for the dwellers. Those related illness is one of the main factors that can pull the poor household back into the poverty although they have had place in an informal urban economy. This condition can further hinder their ability to engage with urban economy activities to produce goods or services, since they are considered as important contributors of local economic growth (ICMA 2010).Urban slum growth and its deteriorated conditions of life are major challenge and must be a priority of development in both national and international level (Butala et al. 2010). The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has addressed directly the associated issues to reduce the number of population without basic services, particularly access to improved water and sanitation (in target 7C) and significant life improvement of slum dwellers (in target 7D). In term of MDGs target achievement, progress towards water supply and sanitation provision in urban areas could reinforce the achievement of slum improvement (MDGs Report 2013). The MDGs target to improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2015 will depend in part on...