Climate change is playing a significant role toward delivering sustainable transport. The location of workplace, home, leisure, education and other facilities, act as the driver of traveling framework. Transport system is the main support of daily activities. At the same time, it is a source of discomfort, due to the noise, traffic congestion, air pollution and climate change, contributing to 20% of greenhouse gas emission globally (IPPC 2013). The level of car ownership and usage nowadays is unsustainable leading to polluted and unhealthy cities. Each of the mentioned concerns can be considered important to shift toward a more sustainable urban development. Spatial planning main purpose is to find ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the local, regional and national level. Although major countries, like UK, are directing transport policy initiatives toward usage of sustainable mobility, it is difficult to implement in practice in a society used to travel by car (Hutton, 2013). The existing city form and urban fabric have contributed to increased car usage. The built environment can influence the integration of sustainable travel into the urban pattern. Planning can begin to alter the inherited pattern of travel behaviour and establish a changed trajectory for the future. There are numerous opportunities to generate appropriate planning strategies at the built environment levels, which can lead in delivering sustainable travel. Integrated land use planning and urban design principles promote development of mixed use residential areas that can be well connected by public transport and safe for cycling or walking (Mark Deaking, 2007).
Spatial Planning and the Compact City
Travel by car is an essential component of contemporary cities enabling people to access long distances. Accessibility is crucial because in many case the importance lies in being able to reach a certain location to execute and not how much distance is covered. For example, access to high quality education institution can influence residential location choice and travel behaviour. Differences in accessibility may result in uneven distribution of facilities and at the same time affect the travel pattern of individual (Hutton, 2013)s. The compact urban form may ensure high accessibility, but doesn’t imply that people travel behaviour will change immediately. The role of sustainable spatial planning is to maximise accessibility while minimising environmental, economic and social costs. The primary goal is to reduce trip distances by increasing the proximity of people to goods, services and jobs (Williams, 2005). Many European countries do not yet have effective policies to prevent low-density urban sprawl and the spread of car-oriented retail parks on the edge of cities, representing a key challenge in the context of increasing motorization. The land use regulatory system can be a powerful tool to restrain and influence the travel behaviour through co-locating...