Symptoms and Effects of Primary Insomnia
Insomnia, defined as "difficulty in initiating or maintaining a restorative sleep that results in fatigue, the severity of persistence of which causes clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning" (VandenBos, 2007, p. 485), connected with the pineal gland in the brain that produces melatonin that works with ‘circadian’ rhythms, which in time helps control sleep (Gillam, 2009). Through use of polysomnography, researchers find the possibility that a longer period of stage 1 sleep while stages 3 and 4 do not get enough time inadequate sleep causes insomnia. The disorder predominately exists among young adults and middle-aged people. "Population surveys indicate a 1-year prevalence of insomnia complaints of 30%-45% in adults. The prevalence of primary insomnia is approximately 1%-10% in the general adult population and up to 25% in the elderly” (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000, p. 601).
The following conditions commonly confused with insomnia, and although similar to insomnia, do not define the disorder: "short sleepers" do not have the stress and tiredness and problems getting to sleep as do people with insomnia, unawareness of the condition can cause an insomnia style of sleep; people with "Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder" only experience symptoms of insomnia at times when not accustomed to sleeping ; Breathing disorders such as sleep apnea mainly occur with trouble breathing (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Primary insomnia shows symptoms to determine whether a person has the disorder and treatments, mainly drugs or other type of remedy provide help with the symptoms.
In order to be diagnosed, primary insomnia must not occur along with another mental or sleep disorder, or during substance use. In other words, insomnia symptoms must occur independently from other factors. According to DSM-IV-TR, primary insomnia correlates with anxiety, depression, tiredness during daytime, and it negatively affects attention skills. Genetics link to the development of insomnia, but researcher’s have an uncertainty of how strong the relationship (2000).
Insomnia, generally affects women and older people, older people and men have trouble staying asleep, and younger people normally have trouble achieving sleep. Symptoms of insomnia usually begin from a stress-triggering element. Such symptoms may be lengthened can lead to insomnia (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). Studies have conveyed two main concepts related to insomnia: “physiological, emotional and cognitive activation” and how intense stress affects the person who goes through times of hardship. If insomnia continues without prevention, it may cause other disorders such as depression (Alexandru, 2009, p. 68).
Of many treatments for insomnia, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy start this list. Cognitive behavior treatments aim towards adjusting the participant’s thoughts of...