Human Down Syndrome
As diseases evolves so does humans, in order to eradicate the threats of the tiny world. Dangers such as viruses and bacteria, but humans are one-step forward and develop vaccines and antibiotics. Currently, one disease humans cannot stop is Down syndrome.
Down syndrome causes a person to have physical and learning disabilities. Both of these disabilities can be minor to severe. According to World of Health (2000), “physical problems include a small skull, a narrowed or flattened nose bridge, poor muscle tone, and multiple folds beneath the eyes” (para. 1). The most noticeable is intellectual disability, which is similar to dementia. However, effects of people with Down syndrome are very minor in their life, and does not change compared to a non-Down syndrome person. There are many medical risks and problems, but most are treatable. As a result, a person with Down syndrome will most likely have a long healthy life. They can live, play, ride bikes, marry, get jobs, and even have children.
Contrary to popular belief, most Down syndrome cases are not hereditary. In fact, 99% of Down syndrome cases are completely random. According to the National Down Syndrome Society (n.d.), “Translocation is the only type of Down syndrome known to have hereditary link. Translocation accounts for 3 to 4% of all cases of Down syndrome. Of those, one third (or 1% of all cases of Down syndrome) are hereditary” (para. 6). Translocation means part or all of chromosome 21 is attached to a different chromosome, and a person that is a carrier of Down syndrome does not exhibit any symptoms of it; however, their child’s chance of inheriting it is increased. The Gale Encyclopedia of Science (2008) says Down syndrome is caused by an additional instance of chromosome 21 as shown in figure 1. When a sperm cell fertilizes an ovum, the zygote normally obtains 23 chromosomes from each parent. However, in Down syndrome, a mistake during division produces a cell with an extra chromosome 21, which is called nondisjunction. It is also called trisomy 21, which applies to about 95% of all Down syndrome patients.
Since Down syndrome is mostly random and not hereditary, it happens equally to both male and females regardless of race, ethnic, or nationality. It is also one of the most common genetic disorders at an approximate rate of 1 in every 700 births. To detect the symptoms of Down syndrome, doctor search for infants that too quiet, less responsive, and very weak. Easy signs are “a flat appearing face; smaller than normal head; flat bridge of the nose; smaller than normal, low-set nose; small mouth, with a protruding tongue; upward slanting eyes; extra folds of skin located at the inside corner of each eye, near the nose (epicanthal folds); small, outwardly rotated ears; small, wide hands; an unusual, deep crease across the center of the palm (simian crease); malformed fifth finger; wide space between the big and the second toes; unusual creases on the soles of...