Artificial intelligence or "AI" is the study of computer science that tries to enlighten and to imitate, through machine-driven or computational procedures, facets of human intelligence. Incorporated amid these aspects of intelligence are abilities to intermingle with the natural world across sensory methods and decision making abilities in unpredictable situations without human interference. Standard areas of exploration in AI consist of computer vision, game playing, learning, natural language understanding and synthesis, as well as problem solving and robotics (Noreen Herzfeld, 2003).
No one has agreed on a concrete definition of artificial intelligence, largely because there is insignificant understanding as to what comprises intelligence. Explanations of what it requires to be intelligent vary, however the majority can be grouped in one of three ways. Intelligence can be thought of as a quality, a unique person held property that is separable from all other properties of the human being. Intelligence is also observed in the occupations one performs, in engagements or the ability to carry out certain tasks. Finally, several researchers see intelligence as a characteristic that can only be learned and validated through relationship with other intelligent beings. All of these considerations of intelligence have been applied as the basis of a method to developing computer programs with intelligent characteristics (Noreen Herzfeld, 2003).
Cognitive Psychology, Computers and Artificial Intelligence
Physicists recognized that any observation we make of the natural world is likely to disturb it. They would have to attempt to bridge the artificial gap between observers and observed, between inner world and outer world, between mental and material. Scientific investigations shifted from an independent and objectively knowable universe to one’s own observation of the universe. Modern scientist would no longer be so called “detached” from the focus of their observation. In a sense, they would become “participant-observers” (Schultz, 2008).
Ulric Neisser published Cognition and Reality in 1976. He insisted that the results of his psychological research should have ecological validity. He meant that they should be generalized to situations beyond the confines of laboratory. In addition, Neisser insisted that cognitive psychologist should be able to apply their finding to practical problems, helping people deal with everyday issues in their work and in their lives (Schultz, 2008).
Today, the mechanical model of how the mind was believed to work is widespread. The universe and behavioral psychology that derived from it have been superseded by other viewpoints such as the acceptance of subjectivity in physics and cognitive movement in psychology. The computer has emerged as a metaphor for the function of the mind in the twentieth century. The phenomena of the computer is said to display artificial...