The Arab Spring in the March of 2011 ushered in a new age of open resistance to the Syrian regime. At the beginning the protester were calling for a political reforms but in the course of time it turned in the face of a aggressive crackdown into the entire nationwide uprising calling for the oust and to put an end to Bashar al-Assad presidency and his regime. Thus, according to estimation in two year of fighting around 126,000 people, with roughly 4.25 million Syrian people internally displaced and over two million Syrian had seek refugees in neighboring country like turkey, Lebanon Iraq, Jordon and Egypt to escape the war. Also some of the neighboring countries which is bordered to Syria have experienced various amount of spillover skirmishing and conflicts so it seems that these clashes threatens and undermine the region. The severe mutability of events and the complexity in astute propaganda from factual events on the ground have turned the conflict tremendously challenging for outside observers to track. Therefore, this essay will try to better explain the crisis by providing a brief explanation of how this uprising has outspread over the course of the struggle, main regional groups, and the international community involvement to put an end to this bloodiest conflict.
Bashar al-Assad the current president of Syria came to power after his father Hafez al-Assad passed away in 2000 who ruled Syria for thirty years. When Bashar al-Assad came to power there were high expectation and hopes for reform, but he enervated political constraints and permitted some political activities. This era was called the spring of Damascus, but it did not lived long, since Assad soon turn back to authoritarian and oppressive way of ruling as his father used to ruled. And the failure of the political reform to materialize creates uncertainty and frustration among the Syrian people. An association of well-known Syrian opposition members gathered in Damascus and called for the removing the Emergency law and the completion of political reforms. Though some of the leaders were captured and arrested on the time, the rest of them remained active and laid the foundation for the most important opposition group. The self-immolation of a street vendor “Mohammed Bouazizi”, in Tunisia who protested because of the political and economic humiliation which he had tolerated under the oppressive and authoritarian regime of Ben Ali, which not only toppled Ben Ali dictatorship but also sparked a regional uprising that led to ousted of the regimes in Libya, Egypt and Yemen.
Assad in an interview with the Wall Street Journal said that Syria is immune and regarding the reform he said people should wait for next generation to implement those reforms, this really disappointed Syrian people. It was the time that against the Emergency law of the Syria which banned the public protest, people gather in the neighborhood called Bab Tuma in the February 2nd 2011 and soon spread to...