Operating Systems Essay

1765 words - 7 pages

Operating Systems

Operating Systems
An operating system is the program that manages all the application programs in a computer system. This also includes managing the input and output devices, and assigning system resources.

Operating systems evolved as the solution to the problems that were evident in early computer systems, and coincide with the changing computer systems. Three cycles are clear in the evolution of computers, the mainframe computers, minicomputers and microcomputers, and each of these stages influenced the development of operating systems.

Now, advances in software and hardware technologies have resulted in an increased demand for more sophisticated and powerful operating systems, with each new generation able to handle and perform more complex tasks. The folowing report examines the development of operating systems, and how the changing tehcnology shaped the evolution of operating systems.

First Generation Computers (1945?1955)
In the mid?1940's enormous machines capable of performing numerical calculations were created. The machine consisted of vacuum tubes and plugboards, and programming was done purely in machine code. Programming languages were unheard of during the early part of the period, and each machine was specifically assembled to carry out a particular calculation.

These early computers had no need for an operating system and were operated directly from the operator's console by a computer programmer, who had immediate knowledge of the computers design.

By the early 1950's punched cards were introduced, allowing programs to be written and read directly from the card, instead of using plugboards.

Second Generation Computers (1955?1965)
In the mid?1950's, the transistor was introduced, creating a more reliable computer. Computers were used primarily for scientific and engineering calculations and were programmed mainly in FORTRAN and assembly language.

As computers became more reliable they also became more business orientated, although they were still very large and expensive. Because of the expenditure, the productiveness of the system had to be magnified as to ensure cost effectiveness. Job scheduling and the hiring of computer operators, ensured that the computer was used effectively and crucial time was not wasted.

Loading the compliers was a time consuming process as each complier was kept on a magnetic tape, which had to be manually mounted. This became a problem particularly when there were multiple jobs to execute written in different languages (mainly in Assembly or Fortran). Each card and tape had to individually be installed, executed then removed for each program. To combat this problem, the Batch System was developed. This meant that all the jobs were grouped into batches and read by one computer (usually an IBM 1401) then executed one after the other on the mainframe computer (usually an IBM 7094), eliminating the need to swap tapes or cards between programs.


Find Another Essay On Operating Systems

Operating Systems Analysis

1158 words - 5 pages RUNNING HEAD: OPERATING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PAGE \* Arabic \* MERGEFORMAT 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PAGE \* Arabic \* MERGEFORMAT 5 Operating Systems AnalysisPOS/355February 27, 2012Margaret MorrellAbstractMost common operating systems are the Windows series, Mac OS X, and Linux. These systems connect to the Internet and use security features unique to each system. Comparison will be made for each OS ease of use and security. These three

Multi User Operating Systems Essay

1563 words - 6 pages An operating system is a set of software programs, which manage computer hardware in a controlled fashion. The operating system controls the file-system, process management, memory management and peripherals. Multi-user operating systems are used on large mainframe computers. A mainframe computer system has one very powerful processing unit, which may contain many microprocessors. Many users will all share this processing unit. They use

Mobile Operating Systems

1176 words - 5 pages wide range of applications for instances games, apps,communication or social media apps, digital maps, etc are used by users. There are several mobile operating systems like: ios, android, blackberry, symbian os, bada os, windows os, etc...In this audit we are presenting windows operating system and android operating system in brief. Features and applications of these phones have been looked closely in the audit. TECHNOLOGIES Android

Operating Systems Comparison Analysis

6485 words - 26 pages Comparison Analysis PAGE 28 Operating Systems Comparison AnalysisUniversity of PhoenixPOS/420AbstractThis paper will provide a comparison analysis between the Microsoft Windows XP Operating System and the Ubuntu desktop Linux distribution. Areas covered will include cost, market share, hardware requirements, file processing, programming capabilities, application software, user interface, stability and security. Included in this analysis will

Multi User Operating Systems.

1695 words - 7 pages Principle Features The Multi User Operating System is an operating system that can support two or more simultaneous users. Most common operating systems found such as Windows are not actually Multi-User but Single-User operating systems. Single user will allow one user to do one task at a time in Single Task mode or in Multi Task mode they will allow a user to have a number of programs or tasks running at the same time such as printing

Operating Systems and Standard Operating Environment

730 words - 3 pages support agreements are also commonplace. Operating Systems (OS) have been produced in abundance by software vendors for many years. These platforms are generally installed by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), i.e. pre-installed at the time of purchase, or by a technically competent individual within the organisation. From the wide choice of platforms available, businesses find that there is more than one OS platform installed across

Why Operating Systems Are Obsolete

1270 words - 5 pages Why Operating Systems are Obsolete gauge, 2001 Modern operating systems are expected to provide the user with several services, including networking support, filesystems, drivers for various peripheral devices, graphics libraries, multitasking, memory management, virtual memory, and sometimes even graphical user interfaces. Naturally, with all this complexity one might wonder which of these services are really necessary for the actual operation

A Competitive Operating Systems Comparison

972 words - 4 pages A Competitive Operating Systems ComparisonCorinne MitchellCynthia RiceCIS 110-90 EC31 March 2014A Competitive Operating Systems ComparisonIn the world of computers, there are two chief forms of operating systems: Unix and Windows. The two have been competing against each other for a long time, and are certain to have a competitive future. The advent of Unix came from a failed attempt at making a time sharing operating system in the early 1960's

File Managers in Operating Systems

1995 words - 8 pages The operating system (OS) is a collection of software to control the computer tasks and manage proper utilization of the hardware resources. The basic operating systems are the Linux, UNIX, Mac and Microsoft Windows. There are several and diverse components of an operating system that include but not limited to the file management, security, memory and process management. The following paragraphs present the comparison of basic operating

Huffman Trucking Operating Systems Overview

613 words - 2 pages Huffman Trucking PAGE 1 Huffman Trucking Operating Systems OverviewHuffman Trucking is a national transportation company. The company's logistical hubs are located in Los Angeles, California, St. Louis, Missouri, and Bayonne, New Jersey. Its central maintenance facility is in Cleveland, Ohio (Apollo Group, Inc, 2005). Most of the operating systems (OS) used at the four Huffman Trucking offices are Windows based utilizing Windows XP Pro

Software and Operating Systems Basic Information

616 words - 2 pages What is software?Software is the general name given to all the programs that can be run on computer hardware. There are two main categories of software: operating systems (systems software) and applications software.Operating systems (systems software):An operating system is a program that controls the hardware directly. Operating systems perform the following tasks:They provide a way for applications software to communicate with the hardware

Similar Essays

Operating Systems Essay

1435 words - 6 pages Operating Systems Where would we be without operating systems? Technologically, we would be living in the Stone Age, computers would be useless without an operating system. What is an operating system? An operating system is computer instructions that coordinate all the activities of a computers’ hardware like, memory, storage devices, and printers (Gary B. Shelly). Operating systems work in two ways, by managing the hardware and software

Operating Systems Essay

1219 words - 5 pages Untitled In order to look at the operating systems, we must first ask the questions "What is a computer?" and then "What is an operating system?" In his book A History of Modern Computing, Paul Ceruzzi states that "computers were invented to "compute": to solve "complex mathematical problems," as the dictionary still defines that word. They still do that, but that is not why we are living

Operating Systems Essay

3149 words - 13 pages when programs will run. · Single or Multi-User · A single-user operating system has only one user at a time. This user is granted exclusive access to all system resources. · A multi-user operating system can have more than one user at the same time. Most multi-user operating systems are also multi-tasking. · Memory Management · This defines how memory is allocated to specific tasks, and how memory is protected from other processes. · Device

Network Operating Systems (Nos) Essay

1006 words - 5 pages Network Operating Systems, abbreviated NOS, are programs that are designed to work with numerous computers on a network, allowing for communication amongst them, but “the term network operating system, however, is generally reserved for software that enhances a basic operating system by adding networking features” [5]. The NOS provides structure to the network as it controls the hardware and software within a network. The network operating