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Talk About The History Of The Native American Tribe: The Hohokam

460 words - 2 pages

Prehistory: HohokamThe Hohokam, the desert farmers of the American Southwest, were centered in the middle Gila and Salt river drainage basins in the semiarid Sonoran Desert of Arizona. This landscape had some mountain ranges separated by level basins or plains. The mountains were important as a source of natural water in springs and rock tanks and as a collector of rain as runoff for floodwater farming. High temperatures, low humidity, and little rain characterize the desert climate.Hohokam villages lack the romance and dramatic visual appeal of cliff swellings and large pueblos, and the heat of the desert discourages summer ...view middle of the document...

The designs are simple geometric forms, usually made with wide lines. The famous stone and shell industries of the Hohokam also had their genesis early in the pioneer period. The Hohokam are justly famous for their profuse work in shell.The Colonial period was one of expansion for the Hohokam. Their range was extended into drainage's tributary to the Salt and Gila rivers. The reasons for expansion were probably manifold. Colonial period sites have been the object of more excavation than those of any other period. During the Colonial period work in stone becomes much more elaborate, although there is little change in the fashioning of utilitarian stone tools.Classic Hohokam was a period of great change with evidence of social interaction from several sources. The Classic period is divided into an earlier Soho phase and a later Civano phase. Canals reach their largest extent during the Classic period. Ceramics also change considerably in form and decoration while there is no major change in utilitarian stone tools from Sedentary to classic. More shell artifacts, especially as mosaic pieces, are produced in the Classic than ever before.The end of the Classic, between 1400 and 1450, is also the end of the Hohokam as an archeologically describable culture in southern Arizona. There is then a gap in the archeological records from the mid-fifteen century to the arrival of the Spanish. The Hohokam at that time were already declined.

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