Tanzania Essay

1407 words - 6 pages

Tanzania ligger söder om ekvatorn. Hela landets östliga sida består av en kustlinje där där landet möter Indiska Oceanen. Landets nordligaste punkt ligger nästan på ekvatorn medan sydligaste punkten ligger omkring 10゚söder om ekvatorn. Tanzanias position är alltså under ekvatorn och ligger 30-40゚öst om nollmeridianen. Landet är 945 087 km2 till arean och detta innebär att det är dubbelt så stort som Sverige. Både Afrikas högsta och lägsta punkter ligger i Tanzania: Tanganyikasjön är den lägsta punkten med sitt djup på 385 meter under havets yta. Berget Kilimanjaro, utgör den högsta punkten med sin höjd på 6000 meter över havsytan. De stora höjdskillnaderna i landet gör att klimatet varierar mycket och att det styrs till stor del av altituden.

På grund av Tanzanias varierande geografi, med kusten som har ett visst klimat, landets inlandsplatå ett annat och bergsområderna ett tredje, omfattar då landet tre olika klimat. I nära höjd med havsytan eller vid sjörna och kusten är det ett tropiskt klimat med hetta och fuktighet som dominerar. Längre in i landet finns ett platålanskap som utgör en stor del av landets yta. Här återfinns Tanzanias savanner. I bergsområdena sjunker temperaturen ju högre upp ovanför havets yta man kommer. I jämförelse med landets genomsnittliga temperatur som ligger på 20-28゚C, kan det bli riktigt kallt om man är tillräckligt högt upp.

Man kan säga att landets klimat är subtropiskt med två regnperioder som sker varje år. Regnperioderna är ytterligare en faktor som påverkar landets klimat. De påbörjas med att vindriktningen förändras. Regnperioden Masika, är de långa regnen som infaller från mars till slutet av maj. På morgnarna faller regnet häftigt men vädret blir sedan klart på eftermiddagen. Det samlas stora moln under kvällen och regnet startar om igen och fortsätter hela natten. Den andra regnperioden, Mvuli, är de korta regnen som infaller under november och december. Det kommer då oftast lätta regnskurar under morgnar och kvällar men senare under dagen brukar det vara klart och soligt väder. Årstiderna i Tanzania är omvända. Vintern blir mild på låglandet och på kusten, så här års är det mycket behagligt med mycket sol.

Torka
Tanzania är ett av de länder i Afrika som har drabbats av klimatförändringar och mycket svår torka under de senare åren. Läget i Tanzania är mindre allvarligt än resten av Afrika men torkan berör ändå områdena som gränsar mot Kenya, allstå de norra delarna av landet. Årets skördar har varit mycket sämre än normalt i jordbrukande områden i norr men betydligt bättre än normalt i söder. Till följd av situationen i landet har priserna ökat högre än vanligt så här års på marknaden. Den svåra torkan som drabbar landet, bidrog också till att mycket boskap i norra Tanzania dog sommaren 2009. På grund av landets varierande klimat, reflekteras detta i jordbrukets avkastning då odlingen styrs av vädret. Detta orsakar stora problem för Tanzanias ekonomi eftersom världsmarknadspriserna på exportvarorna...

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