There are several theories that examine an organization and it’s approach to managing work in an effort to develop efficiency and increase production. Two classical approaches to management are Taylor’s scientific management theory and Weber's bureaucratic management theory. Both men are considered pioneers of in the study of management.
Taylor’s scientific approach is based on the planning of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Factories are managed through scientific methods and productivity is increase through a mutual trust between management and workers. Weber's bureaucratic approach embellishes the scientific management theory and focuses on dividing organizations into hierarchies, establishing strong lines of authority and control. Weber believed that organizations are accountable to and part of a broader the social order.
With Taylor’s scientific approach decisions are based on science or exact measurements. Estimations made according to convenience are inaccurate and inefficient. Each job is broken down into smaller functions, intern analyzed and timed to the tenth of a second. Through the use of scientific method the best possible way to perform a function is established and put into practice until a time comes when a better method or tool is devised.
Similarly in Weber’s bureaucratic approach, organizations are divided into different echelons with each varying in its degrees of influence. Each unit being commanded by the one above it, a system that promotes stability and has a predictable line of communication. Both approaches of management rely heavily on regulated control. Whether governing task scientifically of people authoritatively. A solid form of control is must be established in order for either management theory to work.
What Taylor called the scientific selection of the workers, really involved the separation of planning work from the function of performing work. Taylor believed that low level supervisors and workers lack the education needed to successfully plan work. His theory states that the planning of how the work should be done is a function of employees with higher levels of education or specialist, such as engineers and managers. Assigning task to individuals based on their level of competence is a far more effective approach.
Bureaucratic management is comparable in that each level of an organization has specific task to perform. Every level performs a specific task with the next higher level providing direction to the subordinate. With the higher levels having a greater authority and knowledge of the organization. The key principle for both theories here is specialization through the use of task allocation. No one individual or bureau is expected to perform ever task required by the organization, every job as a different level of skill or knowledge required. Workers or offices are assigned specific functions to perform based of their level of competence and...