ABSTRACT: Teaching philosophy and critical thinking is one of the main ways to clearly reaffirm the value of human persons and of goodness and freedom. It is not sufficient to propose a philosophical message, but we must teach it systematically (curriculum) with a real synergy between teachers and parents. We must also build a curriculum, which includes an evaluation model based on clear goals and objectives: the intermediate and final evaluation and assessment will enable us to be sure that we have reached our aim. It is also necessary to verify every step, evaluate it and compare it to the criteria (general project, goals, objectives) we put in our mind and use in our teaching. This critical evaluation needs methods and some teaching instruments described herein. The final philosophical education will be much stabler and assure us about our scientific and formative project.
I. Teaching Philosophy
Philosophical thinking includes an educational dimension, according to the dialogical structure of human thinking. First of all a preliminary question: is philosophy teaching and learning possible? This is the main problem, from Socrates to today: if a science exists and can be transmitted: without any objective and universal philosophical knowing about justice, goodness, truth, man becomes the measure of all things (according to Protagoras; science becomes sensation and human knowing is under subjectivism. But it's possible to get truth by dialogue: then it is also possible teaching and philosophically thinking using argumentation and research of universal ideas, transcending simple and unfounded opinions (CIFUENTES, 1997 #4922). This thesis, from Plato to Kant and German idealism (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel) seems the main scientific trend up to today (BARON & STERNBERG, 1987a; BARON & STERNBERG, 1987b; ENNIS, 1987; QUELLMALZ, 1987; SMITH, 1987), in spite of contrasting voices, like Rousseau, against any guidance in philosophical education: the tradition of philosophical schools seems to deny these assumptions, at least "in actu exercito". A problem arises about the teacher, whose duty would be to propose and not to impose his ideas: truth, freedom and human person could be at risk, particularly in developing situations. It is possible to overcome these problems by a philosophical education that could be able to teach critical thinking as a method to evaluate, assess and verify ideas, events and everything that is transmitted. This is a way philosophy can maintain its main traits. The present communication will say how we can teach philosophy, and how we can evaluate philosophical learning (High, 1991; O'Loughlin, 1991), and how we can evaluate critical philosophical learning.
The teaching of philosophy want to obtain the integral education of human person, to know the meaning of human existence and activiy (PIERETTI, 1991).
The teaching of philosophy is a contribute to «complete formation of the human subject, specially in doing...