The National Curriculum directs how pupils are taught in schools. The school curriculum draws from National Curriculum to develop its curriculum to meet individual learning needs of all pupils. The British National Curriculum instructs which and how subjects should be taught, the knowledge, skills and understanding children should attain in each subject and key stage, lastly it sets targets so teachers and other stakeholders can assess how children perform in each subject.
Looking at teaching English in Key Stage 1, speaking and listening, reading and writing go hand in hand. “Most children try out ideas in talk long before they are able to try to pin them down in writing. Reading aloud helps children to become familiar with the cadences and uses of English. For many children expressing ideas orally is easier than in writing, where it is more complicated to orchestrate all the necessary skills. The discipline of writing, which involves precision and clear articulation of meaning for a distant reader, aids clarity in oral communication, too. Reading gives children models of language, and discussion of texts helps them to take such language into their own repertoire. So speaking and listening, reading and writing are not only interdependent, but also mutually enhancing”.
Focusing on reading and writing, The National Curriculum gives guidelines on teaching reading in terms of knowledge, skills and understanding. Reading strategies is one of them, for instance, pupils are to be taught to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment. A teacher aims to foster in each child a love of reading for pleasure by providing opportunities to read and surround children with a range of reading materials appropriate to the age, ability and interest.
One way of teaching fluency, accuracy and understanding, is by providing a progressive structured programme for example reading schemes. Through this structured programme, children are taught phonemic awareness sometimes referred to as sounds and phonic knowledge to read and write words. Phonic knowledge includes sounding and naming the letters of the alphabet, recognition of spelling patterns, reading of high frequency words, linking letter patterns to sounds among other others.
In key stage one, pupils are taught to use grammatical understanding and their knowledge of the content and context of the texts. Through comprehensions, poetry and drama, children are expected to focus on meaning derived from the text as a whole, work out the sense of a sentence by rereading or readings ahead, read new words, and confirm or check meaning and understand how word order affects meaning.
Introduction of non-fiction books as an important resource for topic work and for general research teaches children to read for information and to further knowledge. This complements cross curriculum and use of ICT as children not only read print media but electronic media too, for example websites and videos. Children...