In the past, teachers had to learn new strategies for teaching disabled children through the use of trial and error. However, the teachers of today are asked to effectively teach ALL students using research-based strategies in inclusive classrooms that encompass both traditional students’ and special education students. The following paper will include instructional strategies and methods which are essential for the success of not only traditional students, advanced students, and disabled students, but also students diagnosed with ASD (autism spectrum disorder). The strategies explored in this paper are peer-peer tutoring, direct instruction and even some behavioral strategies that utilize self-monitoring. One teaching model that will be referenced throughout this paper is known as co-teaching, a model which is becoming more of the norm in schools across the country. It is believed that concrete knowledge of instructional methods/strategies can be effective in co-teaching situations and they may even reduce teacher frustration and even improve academic and behavioral performance of autistic students, as well as, average learners in a variety of settings.
When President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law, it had a purpose of making sure that all students’ will have a better chance at learning, and to fulfill their dreams. (www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/achievement/chap12.html). This law stated that every teacher has to be highly qualified in their core subject areas, utilize research based instructional methods, and present information to parents in a timely fashion. While fulfilling the requirements of NCLB, schools across the nation are trying to minimize the gap between student achievements, including those in special education. One way of doing this is by using effective, proven teaching strategies/methods which must include accommodations to students who need them. (U.S. Department of Education, 2007).
In order to meet the requirements set forth by NCLB, schools across the nation are pushing for full inclusion. By doing this, there will be a good mix of at risk students and those who are traditional. In order to teach this variety of students, accommodations will have to be made. Since most general education teachers are not trained in making these accommodations, there may be an issue. Therefore, if accommodations are not met, those who struggle may fall behind in their academics, and they may even begin to display problems in their behavior. This ends up causing teacher to react with adverse teaching methods which generally result in frustration, and may even lead to teachers leaving their current positions as educators (Baker, 2005). However, if teachers are trained to use different instructional and behavioral teaching methods, they will be better prepared to teach in the ever changing diversity within the learning environment (Baker, 2005).
Peer-Peer Tutoring (PPT) is...