The organizational structure is compromised of groups and teams. Organizational behavior theory examines individual and group behavior types in relation to performance, organizational structure, ethics, and conflict resolution. Extensive research has been done in the field of development and application of team behavior and the positive or negative impact it has on accomplishing organizational objectives. Tuckman’s team development theory, Mintzberg’s study of organizational politics, and The Ringelmann effect will be examined. These theories provide insight into the complexities inherent in group structure and the mechanisms organizations need to minimize dysfunctional activities.
The term group and team are used interchangeably for this discussion although they do not have the same meaning. A team consists of a number of people committed to common goals. Teams help organizations enhance performance, reduce costs, and provide employees with a sense of dignity and self-fulfillment. A team’s composition is formal or informal, its effectiveness is predicated, in part, on an organizations’ culture and the personalities and roles of the team members. .
1. There are critics of the five‐stage group development model. Their main point is that this presentation of a group’s development is too static. Do you agree with this criticism? Why?
The Tuckman stages of team development focuses on building and developing teams by analyzing team behavior. The first stage is forming. Group members get to know each other. Tuckman calls this the “ice breaking” stage. The second stage is storming. In this stage conflicts and power struggles occur as individuals compare views. The third stage is norming. In this stage group roles and rules are established. The fourth stage is performing. In this stage roles and rules are followed in order to obtain group goals. The team begins to mature at this stage. The last stage is adjourning. In this stage group goals have progressed to the point of completion and the team adjourns (Smith, 2005).
Tuckman’s five stage theory of group development has been criticized by Smith, a specialist in informal education and community learning, for being too straightforward. Smith argues while there may be some 'universals of development' when we come to examine, in this case, the individual group things are rarely that straightforward. Human processes are frequently characterized by variability and flux. Furthermore, groups are likely to show significant deviations from the path laid out by stage theories. Smith agrees with the cyclical model method proposed by Bales (1965). Bales maintained that group members tend to seek a balance between accomplishing the task and building interpersonal relationships in the group. At one point the focus will be on the former, at another on the latter. The result is, effectively, a movement between norming and performing (Smith, 2005).