Over centuries, technology has been playing an important role in life and it is constantly changing, shaping new social forms. Social analysts have been denying the notion that technology is simply the product of rational technical imperatives and technology is actually a socio-technical product, according to the situations of its creation and use. (Wajcman 2002) In the early days, technology was known as the application of scientific knowledge to create the output, which can be either a product or service. Yet this is not absolutely true as human beings created inventions through trial and errors. Technology has a dynamic force in helping to accomplish tasks within an organization. It can be seen as beneficial, yet evil. Beneficial to businesses if it can improve work progress and generate profits, but evil, refers to the negative consequences that may occur, be it intentionally or unintentionally, like the creation of weapons. (Volti 2012)
Over the years, due to technology advancement, it has created impacts to organizations, changing the work patterns; the way people behave, creating knowledge and profits. Looking at how wired we are, reliant on the use of technology, has technology shaped who we are or the reverse? This essay will cover the relations between technology, organizations, management and employees, based on the two diverging groups’ perspectives – the Modernists and Postmodernists.
Modernists adopt objective ontology, they believe that things exist already for a reason and the task is then to discover and uncover the truth. With the centered ideology, they focus on reality of knowledge and are not influenced by personal feelings and interpretations but based on facts that can be tested and measured. They also fall under the positivist epistemology, whereby the truth is discovered through the use of scientific method. Knowledge is then generated by hypotheses and transformed into explanations and operational terms. This refers to the use of quantitative research strategy and the deductive approach. (Bryman and Bell 2003)
According to the three modern organization theorists, Joan Woodward, James Thompson and Charles Perrow, they have conducted research studies on how technology can influence or shape the organizational structure. Based on Woodward’s typology, she grouped the companies based on their level of technical complexity because she found that there was no relationship between the classical management variables she has listed – ratio of managers to workers, flexibility in management style and number of management levels. (Volti 2005) There are three categories of production type that she has come up with, on the scale of low to high complexity. First, it will be unit or small batch; it requires highly skilled workers as products are customized, such as shipbuilding. Employees have to maintain some control over the machine and the organization structure must be flexible. Secondly, the mass production, it relates to...