In reviewing research regarding the use of technology in the classroom, there is a wealth of information available that varies from the extent of technology to the type of technology used in the classrooms. In order to identify and narrow the topic, it is important to look at the available research and the areas which need additional studies. The area of interest is specifically the use of technology with English Language Learners (ELL). However, in order to focus the research in that particular area, a broader view is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to review the annotated bibliography created in the previous assignment and discuss specific areas such as theories, relationships and possible gaps or contradictions.
Historically, language learning, whether it was an English as a second language (ESL) class or a second (foreign) language class, relied on some form of technology from early in the 1970 or perhaps even earlier. The technology that was used included audio tapes and recordings which provided students with a type of drill practice. However, in time, these practices which often took place in language labs, eventually subsided partially because they were deemed too costly and not very effective. This was largely due to research and theories which suggested better ways to develop language learning.
The cognitive approach indicates that language learning is an individual psycholinguistic act. Chomsky (1986), states that a language learner does not gain the knowledge though habit and repetition, but rather by generating perceptive knowledge of the language through the integration of meaningful language that is comprehensible. For this purpose, language must be communicative. Through this approach, it is not only natural for the learner to make mistakes, it is also necessary in order to create the learning transfers and the generalizations needed for expanded growth. Through this approach, the technology that is integrated in the classroom must allow the students to have extended exposure to real world language usage and the activities must be meaningful for the student. Studies created at the elementary level often fall in this category utilizing specific software or on line programs designed for this purpose. In the high grades and for adult education, technology can be used with multimedia activities including virtual tours and other activities that may require the four domains of language acquisition: listening, speaking, reading and writing. One of the critiques for the technology used for this purpose is the fact that it does not require direct teacher student interaction. The student can work independently with minimal guidance from the teacher.
The resource based approach uses technology as support resources. Using computer based technology to access information in the target language provides the students with real world activities and exposes them to the target language. This allows the student to be immersed in...