Teenage childbearing is a growing problem in the United States. The United States experiences higher rates of teenage pregnancies than other developing countries. Teenage pregnancy represents a major social and financial burden, and has significant economic effects for society in increased welfare costs. Teenage childbearing costs taxpayers approximately nine billion dollars in direct costs linked to foster care, health care, criminal justice, public assistance, as well as lost tax revenues.1 Additionally, teenage pregnancies have long-term consequences for both the child and the mother. Children who are born to teenage mothers may experience lower education achievement, while the mothers ...view middle of the document...
8 per 1,000 to 122.7 between 1990-2005, but increased to 126.3 in 2006. Among non-Hispanic white teens, the pregnancy rate fell from 86.6 per 1,000 to 43.3, before increasing to 44.0 in 2006.2 Among Hispanic teenagers, the pregnancy rate decreased from 169.7 per 1,000 to 124.9 between 1992 and 2005, before rising to 126.6 in 2006.2 Even though teenage pregnancy rates declined for each race, Hispanics still have the highest rate nationwide. Texas ranked number 4 in teenage pregnancies. As of 2013, Texas has a total population of 26,932,619, and 10,989,822 of the population is Hispanic. The rate of teen pregnancies among Hispanics under the age of 20 in Texas is 64% and 23% for repeated births. In order to come to a solution it is important to examine why teenage pregnancy is unbelievably high among Hispanics. The more we know the better we can prevent teen pregnancy and other consequences that relate with this issue. The fact that this is a major concern, Healthy People 2020 has some related objectives that regard family planning that targets both female and male adolescents. Objective FP-12 is aimed to increase the proportion of adolescents who receive formal instruction on reproductive health topics
before they are 18 years old.5 This objective has 8 different sections that deal with abstinence, birth control methods, HIV/AIDS, and STDs.
Many factors are linked with teen pregnancy. These factors may be related to the individual level (ex: beliefs, attitudes, future goals, knowledge), the interfamilial level (ex: family structure, socioeconomic status, parent-child communication), or the community level (ex: peer influences, norms, sexual health education at school). Most of these factors are changeable, and these changes need to be done. Educating these teenagers about sex and the negative outcomes of teenage childbearing, can be viewed as an important factor that can be adjusted and help prevent or diminish this public health concern. A helpful resource, ReCAPP, Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, provided curriculum overviews of evidence-based program models targeting teenagers and risky sex behaviors. Table 1 includes some of the programs, the publications, the findings, and other relevant information.
PROGRAM PUBLICATION EVALUATION DESIGN SETTING LOCATION OUTCOME TARGET GROUP THEORY
Cuidate Villarruel, Jemmott, &
Jemmott, 2005. Experimental Design Community
(Saturdays) Urban -- 3
use n = 249 males,
n = 304 females;
(85% Puerto Rican) Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Reasoned Action, and Theory of Planned Behavior
the Line Coyle, Kirby, Marin, Gomez,
& Gregorich, 2004. Experimental Design School-based Urban
districts) Delayed sexual
initiation Middle School (ages
17 % White,
5 % African
50% male, 50%