Telomeres: Implications And Current Research Essay

1309 words - 5 pages

At the core of every organism lies a particular cellular alphabet which encodes the information for the lifelong development and maintenance of that organism. This genetic library, or genome, of an organism is located in the nucleus and consists of the complete set of DNA segments that are packaged into chromosomes. Each chromosome has one long twisted DNA molecule which is made up of hundreds to thousands of genes that encode genetic information in the specific sequence of the four types of nucleotides: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. The deoxyribonucleic acid of all organisms is composed of the four kinds of nucleotides but the differences in their sequencing is what distinguishes one organism from another. Hence, all life forms are essentially built from the same genetic code: DNA. Quite literally, DNA is the equivalent of life.
Now, for each of the genes stocked in DNA to be transmitted to each of our cells, the DNA molecules must be replicated. This is done by the process of mitosis or the division of the nucleus. Before a cell prepares to divide, the chromosomes are duplicated so each of the two daughter cells is the genetic equivalent of the parent cell. During this synthesis period, the two strands of the DNA double helix separate and the enzyme DNA polymerase begins to add nucleotides that are the complementary counterparts of the original DNA molecule. This is due to the fact that the four nitrogenous bases that are the basic building blocks of DNA always bind in a specific fashion: adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always binds to cytosine. Since DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of an already existing DNA strand, it has no way to complete the 5' end of the daughter DNA strand. This suggests that through consecutive rounds of replication, the DNA molecules would become shorter and shorter while losing sections of DNA sequences that code for genes until it reaches a critical point where no further cell division can take place. This phenomenon, called the "end replication problem", was pointed out by James Watson in 1972. Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules overcome this problem by the molecular mechanism of telomeres.
Telomeres are appendages of non-coding, repetitive sequences of nucleotides located at the ends of linear DNA molecules such as those in eukaryotic cells. These protective "caps" found at chromosomes ends prevent the shortening of genes during DNA replication, make it possible for our cells to divide without the erosion of genetic units and ensure that genetic material is successfully passed down from one generation to the next. They also protect the chromosomes from fusing and connecting DNA with each other. Recent studies have also shown that telomeres correlate to aging and that telomeres play a significant role in the immortality of cancer cells.
As previously noted, eukaryotes have repeated nucleotide sequences on the ends of their chromosomes. For example, the...

Find Another Essay On Telomeres: Implications and Current Research

Critical Review of “Current Status of the Research on Construction and Demolition Waste Management” - Assignment

1894 words - 8 pages . Following are some objectives of this research: 1. To summarize the existing construction and demolition waste management methodologies refer to the particular designated criteria. 2. To know what are construction and demolition waste, that are negative impact on the environment. 3. To study four strategies of waste management 4. To explore limitations of current research and provide recommendations for potential research directions. 5. To

Parliament’s Piecemeal Approach to the Indian Act Reform and its Implications - University of Alberta POL 224 - Research paper

2337 words - 10 pages University of Alberta “Parliament’s Piecemeal Approach to the Indian Act Reform and its Implications” Ardrianna Mairs ID:1396824 Political Science 224 Nicole Marshall 10 of 10 The Constitution Act of Canada gives exclusive legislative authority to the Parliament of Canada in dealing with Indians[footnoteRef:1] and Land Reserved for Indians.[footnoteRef:2] Within the scope of its authority, Parliament has implemented the Indian Act which is a

This piece of work is a market research into Mcdonalds and its current situation in terms of sales, problems and marketing issues

3039 words - 12 pages sales in Europe, the company's second-biggest market, fell 0.9 percent. (Copyright 2003, Reuters News Service).Our aim therefore is to approach the management problems from a marketing research perspective. We have therefore defined the marketing research problems as seen below under objectives.3.0Objectives·To measure consumer perception and attitudes towards the brand.·To find out the reasons for the declining sales. Whether it is

Synopsis of a Current Business Research Paper: Direct-To-Customer Advertising of Pharmaceutical Products: Issue Analysis and Direct-To-Consumer Promotion

1167 words - 5 pages Business Research SynopsisIntroductionThis research project paper discusses the Direct-To-Customer Advertising (DTCA) of Pharmaceutical Products: Issue Analysis and Direct-To-Consumer Promotion. This synopsis defines the research, states it purpose, explains the problem, identifies the parties involved, and describes the methods used to conduct the research.Definition of the Business Research and Its PurposeThe purpose of this study was to

Biology Summative: Telomeres, Telomerase, and Cancer

1114 words - 5 pages of research in cancer and telomeres would save the world a lot of money in the future. Lastly, the future applications of this research will lead to advancement in medical technologies. Thus, the links between telomeres and cancer and the discoveries being made on them is changing the world through current and future applications that have implications for cancer treatment, society, the economy, and technology. Works Cited 1. "Chromosome

Telemeres and the aging effect

736 words - 3 pages The tiny "caps" that keep our chromosomes from fusing together are also providing clues that could eventually lead to the achievement of one our nation's most important public health goals: extending good health well into old age.These caps are called telomeres, and they're at the center of much of the current research into the aging process. A study recently published in science journal The Lancet links the lengths of telomeres with rate of

Could Telomeres Be the Answer to Cancer and Aging in Cells

1063 words - 5 pages , changes in diet, exercise and stress management may result in longer Telomeres. Telomeres, as you may know, affect aging. The study was conducted by scientists at the University of California San Francisco and the Preventative Medicine Research Institute, a public nonprofit research institute in Sausalito California. For five years the researchers followed 35 men with prostate cancer in its earliest stages to try to find a link between

Elizabeth Blackburn and Telomarase

634 words - 3 pages in which they operated was very much a mystery until the research of Elizabeth BlackburnSo the first question we need to ask ourselves is, what are the roles of the telomeres and the telomerase as well as the implications for human health and disease, which will be discussed later in the presentation.So, lets begin with focusing on what occurs at the very heart of the cell, the nucleus and the process of cell division. If we observe this process

Dyskeratosis Cogenita

2189 words - 9 pages researchers have found a correlation between shortened telomeres, ROS and p53, which could provide a new mechanism to the reason shortened telomeres lead to senescence and apoptosis, causing the hematopoietic cells to die more readily (Pereboeva, 2013). This research also provides new drugs that may help treat patients with DC and prevent apoptosis of hematopoietic stem cells. Treatment of the Disease Bone marrow failure is the main cause of

Whe Depressed People Age Faster than Other People

1283 words - 5 pages It is, indeed, true that depression is one factor that contributes towards a human being’s accelerated biological aging process. Recent research has undoubtedly proven that persons have suffering from a major depressive order (MDD) have a higher chance of experiencing accelerated aging, and some chronic diseases. A major depressive disorder has big an effect on aging especially on the lengths of cell structures which are named telomeres

Extending Lives--But At What Cost?

998 words - 4 pages inconvenience of a heated political debate on whether extending life for some but not for others is moral, just, and equal treatment. Thanks to scientific research, we now understand that telomeres are responsible for the growth and death of cells. Telomeres are structures found at the end of each chromosome, the cellular component responsible for our genes. The telomeres protect the chromosomes and prevent them from deteriorating or fusing

Similar Essays

Telemedicine And Telepharmacy: Current Status And Future Implications

1741 words - 7 pages ). Telemedicine and telepharmacy: current status and future implications. Eron, L. (2010). Telemedicine: The Future of Outpatient Therapy?. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 51S224-S230. doi:10.1086/653524 Lobe, T. E. (2004). Telemedicine and the Future of Healthcare for Our Children. Pediatrics, 113(1), 130. Rinde, E., & Balteskard, L. (2002). Is there a future for telemedicine?. Lancet, 359(9322), 1957. Singh, G., O'Donoghue, J., & Soon, C. (2002

Current Research On Media Rituals And Contemporary Technologies

2196 words - 9 pages APPLICATION AND CURRENT RESEARCH (in relation to contemporary media) The four contemporary articles which will be analysed, are reflective of the current research on media rituals and contemporary technologies. The research of these authors (Anderson, Bilic, Csaszi and Maj) has been focused on broadening the concept of media rituals and their applications, particularly in relation to digital and internet forms. By critically analysing the

Autism And Implications Of Evidence Based Research On Therapeutic Interventions In Youth

969 words - 4 pages Autism and Implications of Evidence Based Research on Therapeutic Interventions in Youth The field of Autism continues to be an evolving and dynamic theme of exploration and research for professionals in the medical, educational, behavioral, and social science disciplines. The research around evidenced based therapies in these realms guides professional practice, interventions, programs, and long-term care for individuals with Autism. A review

Discuss The Ethical, Political And Practice Implications On Accountability In Nursing As A Result Of The Current Economic Climate And Recent Cuts In Health Care Spending

3588 words - 14 pages healthcare system.This essay aims to analyse and critically apprise evidence from a variety of sources in relation to accountability. All evidence will relate to the current economic climate and proposed cuts in healthcare spending. Professional, ethical and practice implications in relation to advocacy in nursing will be discussed. There are many areas that could be explored within the topic, such as whistle blowing, guidelines or decision