Tempeh Fermentation Essay

896 words - 4 pages

UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓMONA DE QUERÉTAROFACULTAD DE QUÍMICABIOTECNOLOGÍA DE ALIMENTOSCUESTIONARIO DE FERMENTACIÓNNOMBRE DE LA ASIGNATURA: BIOTECNOLOGÍA DE ALIMENTOSALUMNOS: JESSICA LIZZETH BARRERA FLORESROBIN REYES ORTEGACRISTIAN DANIEL JUÁREZ ARANAEquipo: 6Profesor: DR. CARLOS REGALADO GONZÁLEZSantiago de Querétaro, 24 de septiembre de 2014Explicar cuando se presenta el efecto Pasteur y cuando el efecto Crabtree durante la fermentación de la malta.[…] La capacidad de una levadura para producir alcohol y la tolerancia al mismo son dos características relacionadas desde el punto de vista funcional ya que la segunda puede limitar a la primera; sin embargo, son independientes en su origen fisiológico, es decir, la habilidad de una levadura para producir alcohol a partir de un carbohidrato no necesariamente implica que esta tenga una alta tolerancia y viceversa. La producción de alcohol es un fenómeno complejo cuyo rendimiento depende de diferentes factores; por ejemplo las características intrínsecas de la cepa, las condiciones de aireación, la concentración del inoculo, la composición del medio, las condiciones de fermentación, etc.La concentración de oxígeno en el medio tiene una relación inversamente proporcional a la productividad específica de etanol lo cual se conoce como efecto Pasteur. No obstante, concentraciones bajas de oxigeno son indispensables para la síntesis de lípidos los cuales son componentes fundamentales de la membrana celular. Por otra parte en medios bien oxigenados pero con altas concentraciones de azucares fermentables se reprime la síntesis y actividad de las enzimas respiratorias y se produce etanol; a este fenómeno se le conoce con el nombre de efecto Crabtree1 […].Menciona el nombre y género de otras bacterias fermentadores de CHO´s y sus productos biotecnológicos finales.Cuadro 1. Principales microorganismos y tipo de fermentación que llevan a cabo.
Microorganismo

Producto de fermentación

Streptococcus, lactobacillus

Acido láctico

Saccharomyces (levaduras)

Etanol, CO2

Propionibacterium

Acidopropiónico, acido acético, CO2

Clostridium

Acido butírico, butanol, acetona,CO2

Escherichia, salmonella

Etanol, acido láctico, acido succínico, acido acético, CO2, H2

Enterobacter

Etanol, acido láctico, acido fórmico, CO2

(2)Entre las levaduras de valor comercial se encuentran en primer lugar, las utilizadas para la fabricación de diversostipos de bebidasalcohólicas, dentro de las que destacan las del género Saccharomyces debido a su capacidad de desarrollo en etanol; como por ejemplo: S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. carlbergensis. También son importantes en la elaboración de pan...

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