This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Temperamental Biases Essay

1679 words - 7 pages

Jerome Kagan and Nancy Snidman made a great attempt at finding a solid and agreeable definition of temperament. In order to prove or disprove their hypothesis, “that most temperamental biases are due to heritable variation in neurochemistry or anatomy, although some could be the result of prenatal events that are not strictly genetic,” Kagan and Snidman performed a number of ethical studies on children’s reactions to certain objects, people and environments. They did additional studies on rats, as well. These studies included: EEG power and asymmetry of activation, brain stem auditory-evoked potential, balance between sympathetic and vagal reactivity in the cardiovascular system, event-related potentials, startle and corrugator activity, and anthropometry. In completing these studies, Kagan and Snidman were able to prove or disprove their hypothesis.
Kagan and Snidman went about trying to prove their hypothesis by conducting ethical studies and observations on children. The first study was the EEG power and asymmetry of activation study. The EEG study was actually more of an observation. This observation allowed Kagan and Snidman to be able to categorize children based upon their temperament. These observations included the reactions of children in the dark or in situations where strangers would approach them. More specifically, during the bombing London during World War II, British children younger than five years old who became fearful after being taken from their homes were shown to have been highly fearful before the bombing occurred. Children such as those in London during World War II have been proven to have more activity in the relative right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), which is what actually categorizes them as inhibited or shy. Children who exhibit opposite behavior have been proven to have more activity in the relative left frontal EEG, which is what classifies them as uninhibited or social and outgoing.
These observations did not prove that the temperaments were based on biology or that they were heritable, however, they did verify that these temperaments were demonstrated early in life and remained the same over time. Children who were highly fearful at two years of age, preserved an inhibited persona through the age of eleven. The observations also illuminated the fact that parental behavior had an effect on the children’s temperament. Inhibited two year olds with intrusive, hypercritical mothers were more likely to preserve their shy behaviors than those with less intrusive mothers. This factor also disproves the hypothesis that temperaments are inherited, but verifies that temperaments are learned.
Studies were also conducted on brain stem auditory-evoked potential. Variation in the magnitude of Wave 5 in the brain stem auditory-evoked potential differentiates among the temperamental and personality classifications. Introverts, or inhibited people, have the tendency to peak in Wave 5 before extroverts,...

Find Another Essay On Temperamental Biases

phase diagram Essay

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art Essay

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Myth and Magic: Realism in "One Hundred Years of Solitude"

1531 words - 6 pages “He enjoyed his grandmother's unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth” (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to

Adiponectin: a Novel Indicator of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

2384 words - 10 pages Objective Protein-Energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and overlapping conditions in hemodialysis patients which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine which is exclusively produced by adipose tissue. Few studies in hemodialysis patients have demonstrated that serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to well-nourished ones. The

The Congo Free State: A Legacy of Apathy, Exploitation and Brutality

2298 words - 9 pages Between 1885 and 1908, Belgium’s Leopold II ruled Congo, a region in central Africa, as his personal colony, exploiting the resources and inhabitants for his own gain. Leopold allowed and encouraged Europeans and other Westerners to enter Congo and set up companies whose primary purpose was to gather rubber, which was abundant but difficult to get to in the Congo, using the Congolese as the laborers for the Europeans. Rubber gathering in Congo

Similar Essays

Peer Affiliation, Social Behavior, And Callous Unemotional Traits In Adolescence

2384 words - 10 pages psychopathy and severe antisociality, this paper will focus specifically on the callous-unemotional temperamental style and its correlates. Given that adolescents spend a dominating majority of their time in the presence of their peers, when studying any form of psychopathology in this population it is of eminent importance to also consider the effect of peer relations on the construct of interest. The growing body of work in the peer relations

Bias In The Media Essay

1785 words - 7 pages support of one side” (Sloan, Burleson-Mackay 7). The second example is “the tendency and inclination that prevents a fair and balanced approach to reporting on the news”. This is the most present reason why bias in the media arises. News corporations and owners especially present a constant viewpoint and sway on every story, which is why having a fair approach is hard to accomplish (Sloan, Burleson-Mackay 8). The last example is “a temperamental or

History Of Human Behavior Essay

2765 words - 11 pages . According to Wilson sex creates diversity and diversity (Wilson, 122). Wilson also focuses on the viewpoint that the physical and temperamental differences between men and women have been amplified by culture into universal male dominance. (Wilson, 128). From the viewpoint of religion, Wilson says the biological significance of sex has been misinterpreted by the theoreticians of Judaism and Christianity. (Wilson, 141). As such, it is a discipline

When The Bubble Burst Essay

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I