Terms And People Essay

1497 words - 6 pages

Jacob Fugger - German mercantile and banking dynasty that dominated European business in the 15th-16th centuries. The family business traces its origins to Hans (Johannes) Fugger (1348-1409), a weaver in Augsburg. Under his grandsons Ulrich (1441-1510), Georg (1453-1506), and especially Jakob (1459-1525), the company became established in international trade, including the lucrative spice and slave trades, and built a fortune in copper and silver mining. Their loans to various kings and emperors and involvement with the sale of papal indulgences made family members highly influential in European politics and earned them the criticism of Martin Luther.Charles V - Holy Roman emperor (1519-56), became emperor by providing funds with which the ambitious Habsburg could bribe electors.Magyars - Any member of the dominant ethnic group in Hungary. Speakers of a Finno-Ugric language, they migrated from their early home in the region of present-day Bashkortostan in eastern European Russia across the southern Russian and Ukrainian steppes into the northern Balkans in the 9th century. After collisions with neighboring peoples, the Magyars crossed the Carpathians and settled in the middle basin of the Danube River in the late 9th century, subjugating Slavs and other peoples there. Skilled and fierce horsemen, they raided deep into the heart of Europe in the 10th century and were greatly feared until their defeat by Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. They adopted Christianity in the 11th century under King Stephen I, the founder of Hungary, who made the kingdom part of the European community.Huns - Any member of a nomadic pastorialist people who invaded southeastern Europe c. AD 370.Roman Catholic Church - The Roman Catholic Church has had a profound effect on the development of Western civilization and has been responsible for introducing Christianity in many parts of the world. It regards itself as the only legitimate inheritor of the ministry of Jesus, by virtue of an unbroken succession of leaders beginning with St. Peter the Apostle and continuing to the present day. It holds that the pope is the infallible interpreter of divine revelationEastern Orthodox Church - One of the three major branches of Christianity. The separation of the Eastern churches from the Western, or Latin, branch began with the division of the Roman Empire into two parts under Constantine I.Civil Law - Body of law developed from Roman law. The basis of law in civil-law jurisdictions is statute, not custom; civil law is thus to be distinguished from common law. In civil law, judges apply principles embodied in statutes, or law codes, rather than turning to case precedent.Canon Law - Body of laws established within Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, independent churches of Eastern Christianity, and the Anglican Communion for church governance. Canon law concerns the constitution of the church, relations between it and other bodies, and matters of internal discipline.Common Law...

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