Terrorism From Above Vs. Terrorism From Below

1348 words - 6 pages

Terrorism from above is known as state terrorism, state terrorism is not always a straightforward process in fact it is usually a covert, secret policy that allows states to claim deniability when accused of sponsoring terrorism. There are several ways to spot terrorism from above and can be included many different aspects.
Sponsors of terrorism in terrorism from above, this means the state actively promotes terrorism and has been deemed what the U.S. call a rogue state. There are also enablers of state terrorism, enablers are states that operate in a manner to which being part of the problem means not just failing to cooperate fully in countering terrorism, but also doing some things ...view middle of the document...

When this happens the state leaders typically respond to this with various rationalizations. One of four things can happen, they accept the terrorism as a necessary tactic, deny the labeling of terrorism, deny that the incident ever happened at all, or claim that such violence is unfortunate.
From 1981 to 1988 the U.S. directed guerrilla warfare against the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua incorporated elements of the state patronage model. The U.S. proxy did commit human rights violations and it makes for a good case study of state patronage for a proxy that was capable of engaging in terrorist behavior. The most important component was U.S. support for anti-Sandinista Nicaraguan counterrevolutionaries known as contras.
In the domestic policy domain, state patronage of terrorism occurs when a regime engages in direct violent repression against a domestic enemy. Patronage is characterized by the use of state security personnel in an overt policy of political violence. State patrons typically rationalize polices of repression by arguing that they are necessary to suppress a clear present domestic threat to national security, maintain law and order during times of national crisis, protect fundamental cultural values that are threatened by subversives and restore stability to governmental institutions that have been shaken, usurped, or damaged by a domestic enemy.
The second part of terrorism from above would be the assistance model. State assistance for terrorism refers to inferred participation in terrorist behavior. Basically the state through sympathetic proxies implicitly takes part in repression, violence, and terrorism, state assisters are less explicit in their support.
“In the foreign policy domain, state assistance for terrorism occurs when a government champions a politically violent proxy operating beyond its borders. Under this model, the assistance will be indirect. The state may or may not continue its support if the movement or group becomes known for committing acts of terrorism or other atrocities. When the proxy’s terrorism becomes known, state assisters typically weigh political costs and benefits when crafting a reply to allegations.”
Assistance in domestic policy occurs when a regime engages in indirect violent repression against an enemy. The help is characterized by the use of sympathetic alternatives this occurs where the violence is in line with states security personnel. The overall terrorist environment may include both state patronage and state assistance. State assisters usually adopt positions that blame another group for the breakdown of order and call others to assist the government in restoring order. The state could argue that the proxy violence is evidence of popular patriotic sentiment to suppress a threat to national security. They can also call on all parties to cease hostilities but focus blame for the violence on an adversary group. And finally the state can assure everyone that the...

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