Test Check 3 Essay

775 words - 4 pages

The regional comparison of democratic aspirations (Table 2) shows no significant difference between the public opinion of people in the Middle East with other regions, particularly the West, about the importance of democracy and having a democratic system, free elections, and civil rights. Desire to have a democratic system has been consistently high in the Middle East compared to other regions, while no significant move toward democratization or political mobilization has occurred for a long time prior to the Arab Spring. Also, change over time in the desire to have a democratic political system among Middle Easterners over the span of a decade is insignificant (Figure 1). Therefore, one ...view middle of the document...

The data shows almost no progression in liberal values in the Middle Eastern societies, except for a slight 3% increase in acceptance of homosexuality, based on a comparison of the fourth and fifth waves of WVS datasets covering an eight-year time span prior to events leading up to the Arab Spring.
One of the key elements that encourages citizens to participate in politics is when they embrace and value individual autonomy, self-expression and emancipatory values. Inglehart (1971, 1977) created and tested a postmaterialism index that measures the extent to which a society may be going through a cultural value change that will significantly impact the way the country is run. The so-called “Inglehart index” has been included in many surveys, including the WVS. The assessment of the data based on the IV and V waves of the WVS shows a low mean score for postmaterialism in the Middle East (Figure 2).
The comparison of the fourth and fifth waves also shows a decrease in postmaterialist values over time. Therefore, to borrow Inglehart’s terminology, a “silent revolution” has not happened prior to the Arab uprising. Therefore, we can argue that a shift in socio-cultural values has not happened in the Middle East prior to the uprisings and we may have to look at political opportunity structure model or resource mobilization models to explain the recent Arab uprisings and not a cultural model. The increased level of political mobilization can be better understood through the study of the...

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