1) General Overview
Hypogonadism is a disease/condition in which there is an improper or unacceptable amount of hormones produced by sex glands within males and females. This consignment of an assignment will be discussing male related Hypogonadism.
Male Hypogonadism is a stipulation where there is a lacking of testosterone within the male body. There are 2 focal types of Hypogonadism, primary and secondary. In primary Hypogonadism, there is a direct dispute within the testes of a male. This means that due to their malfunction and impairment, there is an improper production of testosterone. In secondary Hypogonadism, there is a complication within the endocrine system which sends the ...view middle of the document...
Normally, only a small portion of the testosterone produced is actually used by the male body. Majority is inactivated by the liver and is removed from the body. The remaining amount in the body is found in the blood stream. Approximately 54% is actually used by other cells and help maintain homeostasis of the male body (travel by carrier protein called albumin). 44% is tightly bounded to a carrier protein known as Sex hormone binding globulin or (SHGB). This 44% is in an inactive form within the blood stream. The remaining 2% is bio available, meaning it is not bound to any carrier proteins and is ready for use at any time.
Hypogonadism is one of the main cause of osteoporosis in men. Osteoporosis causes the skeletal to weaken and the bones to break. The bones in the body become brittle and fragile. Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for the maintenance of the male skeleton. Therefore, bone density is improved. Testosterone is also important to decrease bone resorption and stimulate bone mineralization. The low levels of testosterone in the body is responsible for Hypogonadism. When testosterone levels are low there is a high chance of the body to develop osteoporosis. Therefore, low levels of testosterone also has a direct effect in bone mass.
Testosterone travels through the blood and reacts with certain target cells. The receptors on the target cells allow them to respond to these hormones. Testosterone is a steroid hormone. This indicates that it will pass through the cell membrane and act on receptors inside the cell. When testosterone enters the cell, it acts on a specific receptor known as Androgen. Androgen is one of the key receptors that are located inside the nucleus. Androgen reacts with DNA sites and this is where coactivators are created. Coactivators are protein that binds to a receptor to increase gene expression. This helps in the formation of RNA which in turn, causes the target gene to be turned into a specified protein which is known as the androgen receptor. Androgen receptors allow the body to appropriately respond to different hormones such as testosterone. These androgen receptors help the direct development of the male sexual characteristics.
Testosterone is crucial for maintaining homeostasis within the male organism due to the fact it is essentially what gives a human male characteristics. Deepening of voice, facial hair growth, sexual desire, muscle mass increase, bone growth and so on, are all under the responsibility of the hormone testosterone. Without it, men would not be able to carry out daily life tasks because their body would have a lack of a hormone that helps it retain itself (e.g. lack of testosterone would cause a decrease in bone mass. This can lead to diseases such as osteoporosis).
This illness has caused a minimization of testosterone within the (male) body. There are several possible causes that could lead to this condition. One of the most common causes is aging. As time goes on,...