Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1272) is fundamentally an Aristotelian, and for some, one of the greatest philosophers, and one of the best theologians. His theological writings became regulative of the Catholic Church and his commentaries on Aristotle, represents a great cultural resource, which are now receiving a greater recognition. As a very catholic man, he tried to prove the existence of God. But How?
Thomas Aquinas recognized that there were people who doubted the existence of God. Because to them logic did not allow or explain His existence. As a devout Christian, he believed in God, but he wanted to prove to those who didn’t that He did. As a result, Aquinas presented five proofs of God’s existence, which are based on logic and observation of nature.
His first proof is based on the idea of a first mover. He proves this by saying that whatever is in motion must have been put in motion by something else. And then defines one type of motion as the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality. Claiming that nothing can be both actual and potential in respect to the same aspect and that nothing can be moved and mover, he leads to the conclusion that there is the first mover - or the unmoved - that moves everything else. God.
His fifth argument is based just by observing the World. Non-intelligent things cannot move toward their ends, unless moved by an intelligent being. Aquinas uses an arrow, as an example. An arrow will not achieve its purpose – of reaching its mark- unless directed by an archer. Humans are the intelligent being that directs the small objects of our World. But there must be a greater intelligence that directs the larger bodies of the Universe, since humans has no control over them. This greater intelligence is God.
With these two arguments, he proves God in two completely different ways. One saying there must be something...