Currently, acid rain is one of the global problems that human societies face. To solve the acid rain problem there must be an understanding of the effect of acid rain and the changes that could be made to the sources of air pollution that cause the problem. Understanding these things help leaders make better decisions about how to control air pollution and therefore how to reduce or even eliminate acid rain. In the early 1970s, no country had a policy to address this problem (Forster). Nowadays, most if not all countries follow the international policy issued by the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (Forster). In my opinion, issuing an international policy to limiting one precursor pollutant at a time and to use biofuels or alternative means instead of those that produce the precursor pollutants to reduce or even solve the acid rain problem.
Acid rain is defined as the phenomenon which sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides undergoes complex chemical processes and may dissolve in rain droplets to form sulfuric and nitric acids (Willyard). Due to sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides production of acid rain, they are considered the primary pollutants also known as the precursor pollutants. Sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides are also emitted when natural gas, coal, and oil are burn. Natural gas, coal and oil supply almost all the electricity that powers modern life.
Meanwhile acid rain refers to rainfall that is more acidic, the acidity of a solution can be measured by its pH value. This means the measurement of the hydrogen ion content of a solution. The pH scale ranges from 1 which is very acidic to 14 which are very alkaline (Krogh). When there is a pH value of seven it means that it is a neutral solution. In addition, the pH scale is logarithmic thus a pH of 5 is ten times more acidic as a pH of 6. Despite having the pH scale as a reference point in identifying acid rain, there is no universal pH value to identify acid rain globally (Forster). The different amount of precursor pollutants varies from country to country thus prevents a solidify agreement of what the universal pH value should be. Regardless of not having a universal pH value, acid rain was acknowledged as a problem due to its pollutants discharged that can be spread from country to neighboring countries and these pollutants can’t be stop physically from entering their territories.
Governments addressed the problem of transboundary air pollution also known as acid rain through a series of binding policy agreements among many countries. The problem of acid rain is subject to international regulations under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and its protocols (Forster). Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air pollution is a successful example of international cooperation and the first legally binding treaty for the protection of the environment. Currently it is ratified by 51 parties. Over the following years, governments...