Advantages and Disadvantages of Crime Prevention
Within this assignment I will attempt to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current emphasis which is placed upon the scientific evaluation of crime prevention.
I will explore the many different ways in which crime prevention is addressed. The first part of this assignment is looking into the emergence of crime prevention and community safety and why it is required in today’s society.
Within the last decades of the twentieth Century, nation-states have been unable to meet their core responsibility to provide communities with security, especially when it comes to physical security from criminal attacks. This has lead to a ‘fear of crime’ within today’s society. (Hughes 2002 P3)
Punishment did not appear to work and the prisons were bulging with convicted criminals, who time after time re-offended. There were also problems and issues with the costs and the influences of the traditional criminal justice system.
(Huges and Lewis, 1998: Clarke et al, 2000)
Martinson 1974 cited in Tilley 2002 summed it up by saying, “Nothing Works”.
The major influence for the Government was money. They had to limit expenditure, and containment was not an option as this was very expensive. The only possible way forward was prevention.
This lead the Government to rethink their idea’s, which saw a shift from the pursuit of the criminal to the prevention of crime (Stevenson 2000b cited in Hughes 2002 p3)
Since 1980 crime prevention has become a significant concern for any Government.
For example the Conservative Government’s policy on their commitment to “Safer Communities” And their campaign on the “War on Crime and Disorder”
(Tim Hope 2000, p.xiii cited in Hughes 2002 p2)
Crime prevention finally became centre stage as a result of rising crime figures. Crime was on average rising 5.7% per annum.
(Tilley 2002 p15)
Although it has been argued that some of the Conservative Partys economic polices were liable to have the unintended effects on the raising crime rates, through unemployment and reducing the perceived prospects for young people and producing greater relative deprivation.
(Field, 1990; Sampson and Laub, 1993 cited in Tilley 2002 p15)
Since the 1980’s there has been a rise in neo -liberal modes of Governance and the moving away from “social” strategies of collective risk management and inclusive modes of social control. New modes include “Responsiblization” a more restricted and “Prudentialist” notion of risk management.
Crime prevention can be placed in to a criminological Paradigm. With Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sections being identified.
The Primary section identifies the area’s that through better education and design can help prevent crime. For example the design of new buildings and the introduction of burglar alarms.
“It costs nothing to make crime one of the factors which is routinely considered when, say, new policies for the delivery of social...