The Adverse Effects Of Exposure To Benzene

1590 words - 6 pages

Benzene (also known as benzol) is a colourless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet odour. It evaporates into the air very quickly and partly dissolves in water. Most people can begin to smell benzene in air at approximately 60 ppm of air and recognize it as benzene at 100 ppm. It was first discovered and extracted from coal tar in the 1980s and subsequently from petroleum due to vast increase in its demand. Since then, various industries use benzene to make other chemicals, such as styrene, cumene and cyclohexane. Benzene is also an important ingredient for the manufacturing of some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticide. Hence, individuals employed in these industries may be exposed to benzene in air far greater than the levels normally encountered by the general population. [1]
Concerns on potential health effects resulting from benzene exposure such as bone marrow depression leading to anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as decreases in circulating blood cells have been reported. In addition, laboratory studies on humans and animals indicated that benzene exerts its effect by damaging the genetic material of cells. Hence, benzene is being classified as confirmed human carcinogen. [2]
In Singapore, every employer has the responsibility to take reasonably practicable steps in ensuring no one at work is exposed to benzene above the permissible exposure level (PEL) specified in regulations. The prescribed permissible exposure limit (long term) for benzene is 1 ppm over an 8-hour working day and a 40-hour workweek. [3] These exposure standards are usually set based on risk evaluation using data obtained from human and/or animal health effects studies. [4]
Thus, this paper will discuss the effects of benzene exposure as well as the adequacy of local PEL in ensuring that workers are protected from its toxicity.
Inhalation exposure is the major route exposure to benzene, although ingestion and dermal routes are also significant. Exposure to high concentrations of benzene of about 20,000 ppm in air within 5 to 10 minutes can result in death. Lethality in humans has been attributed to asphyxiation, respiratory arrest, central nervous system depression, or suspected cardiac collapse. However, in the absence of further exposure, people will stop feeling these effects because 80% of the benzene will be eliminated by chemical breakdown in the body or by metabolic excretion in the urine within about two days.
Excessive exposure to benzene increases the chance for infection and lowering the body’s defence against cancer. Long-term exposure to benzene can cause cancer of the blood-forming organs termed as acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). [1, 5]
In animals, acute inhalation exposure to high concentrations of benzene has caused death. An inhalation LC50 value for rats was calculated as 13.700 ppm following a 4-hour exposure. Early deaths of rats and mice have...

Find Another Essay On The Adverse Effects of Exposure to Benzene

Effects of Radiation Exposure Essay

1354 words - 6 pages woods. I saw a sign, another symbol of the wretched humans that had ruined my home. This one said: “Radiation causes fever, headache, and nausea. White blood cell counts may be lowered. See a doctor if you have any of these symptoms, and EVACUATE IMMEDIATELY!” They didn’t have to tell me twice, once I saw that sign, I knew that everything in my environment was trashed, and I was experiencing the effects of radiation exposure. Sighing, I continued on my journey to find a new home, at least I survived the nuclear disaster that ruined my home, baring all of the trees and polluting virtually everything.

The Negative Effects of Mass Media and Exposure to America’s Youth

1098 words - 4 pages , and attitudes of our children and adolescence. Companies spend billions of dollars per year alone marketing substance abuse, sex, and violence thT is captruing the attention of Americas young. Our world is surrounded with unlimited advertisements through mass media aimed at America’s youth with documented proof pertaining to the noticeable impact of advertisements and the effects on the health, behavior and attitudes targeted at children and

Prenatal Effects of Cocaine Exposure

1710 words - 7 pages In the past it had been thought that prenatal cocaine exposure has severely harmful effects on all aspects of mental functioning, however, recent studies have shown that this exposure does not have as bleak and far reaching negative effects as was previously thought. Recently researchers have pinpointed certain aspects of mental functioning which seem to be altered by this prenatal exposure. One of these mental areas is that of selective

The Effects of Prenatal Cocaine-Exposure On Cognitive Development

1667 words - 7 pages cocaine use and are thought to be responsible for a vasospasm (sudden constriction of a blood vessel) in the uterine blood vessels that causes placental separation (Deering, 2004). Along with this possible condition resulting from cocaine abuse during pregnancy, one could imagine what other affects cocaine has on the fetus during its critical periods of development. Prenatal cocaine exposure is linked to many risk factors, one of which is

Exposure to the elements

1196 words - 5 pages course not physical, but on an emotional and intellectual level. Anytime I watch a documentary or read a story about the effects of high level exposure to radiation, I experience a strong sense of horror. What's more, since the U.S. is supposed to be one of the civilized countries, I can’t help but feel a little bit guilty about the fact that an American President gave the order to use nuclear weapons on targets which consisted mostly of civilians

Adverse Health Effects of Adolescent Pregnancy

1806 words - 8 pages youth younger than 14 years older become pregnant in America. Of the 1% of girls who do become pregnant, the adverse effects that would apply to adolescents 15-19 are amplified. A pregnancy at such a young age has more negative physical and metal effects on the mother because the mother is not fully developed mentally or physically. American teen mothers are often minority youth of African or Hispanic background who account for 57% of all teen

The Significance of Auspicious or Adverse Dates to Personal Fortune

775 words - 3 pages technique, and the placebo effect. Lastly, naturalistic observation is when researchers carefully scrutinize behavior withoutThe Significance of…5trying to control or influence it, so subjects are not aware of being observed. The main disadvantage is waiting for the behavior to occur because the researcher has no control, so the causes and effects are not easy to determine. There is also potential for observer bias and the presence of the

Rainforest Depletion: Adverse Effects on the Environment

1393 words - 6 pages that replanting programs will never be able to compete with. Environmentalists and Meteorologists fear that the elimination of enormous quantities of acreage will result in a long list of problems, including global warming, abnormal precipitation patterns, and unpredictable weather systems, just to name a few. While many of these adverse effects to the regional ecosystems and to the planet as whole may not be evident right away, studies show

Effects of Smoking and Occupational Exposure

1750 words - 7 pages increases, the resident may not be aware without a carbon monoxide detector or until clinical symptoms develops. Clinical manifestations include lethargy, mental status changes, headaches, and mucous membranes that are cherry-red in color (Copstead & Banasik). With exposure to carbon monoxide, the potential lung disease processes that can occur are hypoxia and respiratory failure (Copstead & Banasik). Because the usual incidence of exposure

The Negative Results of Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence

973 words - 4 pages involvement (for example, trying to intervene or calling the police), or experiencing the aftermath (for example, seeing bruises or observing maternal depression)” (Fantuzzo & Mohr, 22). The effects of exposure can lead to behavioral and developmental issues at a young age or interpersonal relationships down the road. It is clear that regardless of the form of domestic violence or its severity the child will undoubtedly be detrimentally affected

The Negative Results of Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence

864 words - 3 pages involvement (for example, trying to intervene or calling the police), or experiencing the aftermath (for example, seeing bruises or observing maternal depression)” (Fantuzzo & Mohr, 22). The effects of exposure can vary from direct effects such as behavioral and developmental issues to interpersonal relationships, all of which lead to detrimental prospects on the child’s development. This paper will explore those effects and how it affects

Similar Essays

The Adverse Effects Of Exploration Essay

879 words - 4 pages . This sudden increase of people in the city would cause large epidemics of disease because of the poor nutrition of the people who were there to start with. The quality of living in the countryside were slightly better. There was not as much disease as there was in the city, but the country-folk were constantly plagued with crop failure. So although there was not as much disease to cause death, there was an extensive shortage of food causing

The Adverse Effects Of Oil Spills

1404 words - 6 pages Abstract: Oceanitis G.W’s main goal through this project is to open the eyes of our school, California, the United States, and the world, to the adverse effects of oil spills and a revolutionary way of cleaning them up. We plan on demonstrating the usefulness of hair and how it absorbs crude oil when haphazardly spilled. Also, we plan to demonstrate how hair can be used as a type of fertilizer before and after it has soaked up oil. This

The Adverse Effects Of A Broken Family

1707 words - 7 pages child. Parents should be expected to provide for all these without a question, but this is not always administered and can lead to negative effects in the family and especially with the child. Consequences are generally cumulative. For example, poor nutrition has a negative consequence on the child’s physical and psychological developments, one of the most important for a young adult. Without these proper nutrients being available at critical

Effects Of Bpa Exposure Essay

2420 words - 10 pages embryos and this can be very serious adverse problem (Wetheril et al., 2002). Studies on effects of BPA on embryonic development: Numerous tests were conducted to different genders of the mice to see the effects of BPA to the foetus (Schondfelder et al., 2004). Before the foetus is exposed to BPA, this will affect the adults. When the BPA affects the male organisms, they tend to gain weights but results in less production of sperm (Schondfelder