The Affects Of Different Yeast On The Rate Of Fermentation

1129 words - 5 pages

AIM:

To see how different yeast affect and influence the rate of fermentation, how much alcohol is being produced and how this affects the overall quality of wine produced.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

Alcohol, is mostly thought of as ethanol which is the alcohol which is found in alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. But there are many different varieties of alcohol such as methanol, propanol and butanol.

In chemistry terms “alcohol” is a compound of a hydroxyl group which is covalently bonded to a carbon chain which can be seen in figure 1.

Throughout this experiment ethanol is the alcohol which is produced during the fermentation process of sugar which is present in the grape must or juice.


Figure 1: Chemical structure of Ethanol (Wikimedia, 19 July 2009)

Yeast is a single celled living organism which is necessary in the process of fermentation of the grape must. Invertase, an enzyme is present in yeast acts as a catalyst to speed up the chemical reaction where sucrose is converted into fructose and glucose. (Donal O’Leary, 2000)

Figure 2: The word and balanced equation of the conversion of Sucrose to simple sugars (Donal O’Leary, 2000)

Another enzyme which is found in yeast is known as Zymase. It is this enzyme present in yeast which converts the glucose and fructose produced into ethanol and carbon dioxide. (Donal O’Leary, 2000)

Figure 3: The word and chemical equation for the conversion of simple sugar to ethanol (Donal O’Leary, 2000)

In the making of wine there are 2 fermentation processes known as
• Primary Fermentation
• Secondary Fermentation

In the process of primary fermentation the sucrose in converted into glucose and fructose and the glucose and fructose start to be converted into ethanol. The carbon dioxide which is produced during this process escapes into the air. (WineDefintions Staff Writer)

In the secondary fermentation the grape must get placed into an air tight contain which is majority oxygen free (may contain some minimal oxygen). This is therefore an anaerobic process. This is the final stage and this is where the final conversion of fructose and glucose into ethanol and improvements to the aromas and final flavours of the wine are produced. (WineDefintions Staff Writer)

There is also a third process of fermentation known as malolactic fermentation. This can occur naturally in the wine if there is wild yeast remaining but is often encouraged by winemakers by adding in bacteria to cause this process to occur. In malolactic fermentation, malic acid is converted into lactic acid by a naturally occurring process in which bacteria feeds on the malic acid. This process is sometimes encouraged as it reduces the wines acidity which therefore removes or reduces the undesirable flavours which can occur due to the acidity. (WineDefintions Staff Writer)

There are many various acids in wine, the main being:
• Tartaric acid (90%)
• Malic
•...

Find Another Essay On The Affects of Different Yeast on the Rate of Fermentation

The Effect of Temperature on Anaerobic Respiration of Yeast

1642 words - 7 pages The Effect of Temperature on Anaerobic Respiration of Yeast We wanted to find the effect of temperature on anaerobic respiration of yeast. We investigated how a mixture of yeast, water, sugar, and flour were affected. Diagram ======= Apparatus ========= 1g of yeast 0.5g of sugar 10g of flour 6 measuring cylinders - to put the sachets in and the 20cm3 of water Measuring...

The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in Yeast

859 words - 3 pages The Effect of Glucose Concentration on Anaerobic Respiration in YeastIntroduction:Yeast, also known as a saccharomyces cerevisiae, is single celled eukaryotic cells that are in the kingdom fungi and are unicellular organisms which normally reproduce asexually by budding at a very high rate. Scientists...

A comparison of the respiration of yeast in different sugar substrates.

6583 words - 26 pages Biology Fermentation Practical"A comparison of the respiration of yeast in different sugar substrates"Aim: The aim was to compare the respiration of yeast in different substrates of sugars, i.e. between a monosaccharide (glucose) and a disaccharide (maltose)Theory: There are three types of Carbohydrates, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The two, which I will be looking at, are, monosaccharide (glucose)...

How Caffeine Affects the Heart Rate of Daphnia

1138 words - 5 pages IntroductionThe purpose of this experiment is to determine whether or not caffeine has an affect on the heart rate of DaphniaHypothesisThe Daphnia heart rate will increase with the concentration of caffeine.I based my hypothesis on the fact that humans heart rates increase with caffeine as it acts as a stimulant...

How Concentration and Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction

804 words - 3 pages How Concentration and Temperature Affects the Rate of Reaction between Magnesium Ribbon and Hydrochloric Acid. WHAT I AM INVESTIGATING I am going to investigate how concentration and temperature affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. MY PREDICTION The thing which I expect to happen is the more acid added to water the faster the reaction will happen. Also the hotter the solution the quicker...

To study how concentration affects the rate of a reaction.

1105 words - 4 pages The Collision TheoryFor particles to react, they must collide. They must also collide with enough energy for a reaction to take place. The energy created is called activation energy. The more often and faster the chemicals collide, the stronger the reaction.Rate of...

Effect Of Temp On Yeast

5195 words - 21 pages Steven Alderdice Burnage Boy aldy@nme.com Biology Coursework This experiment will find out how temperature effects the rate of reaction between yeast and glucose.The reaction is as follows C6 H12 O6 yeast 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Glucose Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide For the reaction to take place particles within reacting substances must collide. The rate of reaction depends upon how often and how hard particles collide with each other. In an enzyme...

Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction

1897 words - 8 pages Investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction Chemistry Coursework This experiment is aimed at investigating how the concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction: The reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium will be used to investigate how different concentrations of the acid affect the rate of reaction. The gas produced from the reaction will be measured and used to display the average rate...

Investigating a Factor that Affects the Rate of Decent of a Parachute

2047 words - 8 pages Investigating a Factor that Affects the Rate of Decent of a Parachute Aim- To investigate one factor that affects the rate of decent of a parachute. Plan There are many factors that affect the rate of decent of a parachute, some of these are: The weight of the object on the end of a parachute, the weight of the parachute, the length of the strings on the end of the parachute, the surface area of the parachute,...

How concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with magnesium ribbon.

1171 words - 5 pages PlanningIn this experiment I am going to find out how concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction with magnesium ribbon.Equation for this reaction:Mg + 2HCl --> MgCl2 + H2PredictionIn this experiment I think the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the faster the reaction.Scientific knowledgeThe highest concentration reacts faster as the solution is more concentrated which...

The Affects of False Advertising on Teens

2240 words - 9 pages Today, more than ever, teenage girls are influenced by magazines, billboards, television, movies, and most of all advertisements. While the advertisements of models that have been airbrushed to flawlessness may sell products, the effects on teen girls is undeniable. Over the past decade the numbers of depression, eating disorders, and hypersexuality in young girls has been steadily on the rise. False advertising in way of airbrushing, heavy...

Similar Essays

Bio Fuels Of Yeast Fermentation Essay

1183 words - 5 pages Introduction Biofuels are an importance source of fuel due to the cause that they are infinite and can be found easily compared to fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are finite, hard to find and are not cost-effective as biofuels are. Another good thing about biofuels is that don’t contribute to global warming as much as fossil fuels do. Biofuels are mainly used for as a source of energy and sustainable transport. The ways that these biofuels are...

The History Of Fermentation Essay

3748 words - 15 pages The History of Fermentation It is impossible to set a date as to the first time fermentation was performed. It is possible, however, to guess, and this guess is roughly 8,000 years ago. Wine has been written about for centuries, in the Greek and Roman myths and scriptures. The Greek god of wine, Dionysius, was in charge of the fermentation atop Mount Olympus. The people of this time may not have known exactly what they were doing, but it was a...

Variable Production Of Carbon Dioxide And Ethanol By The Yeast Saccharomyces In Fermentation Due To Temperature Changes

2361 words - 9 pages AbstractUnder anaerobic conditions, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in determining how much carbon dioxide was produced at several temperature points in Celsius. From these reactions, it is assumed that temperature increase will have an effect on higher production rates of carbon dioxide. In order to achieve these values, several materials were used in the experiment. Two 500 mL flasks were used, one contain 250 mL of...

Rate Of Respiration In Yeast Essay

2513 words - 10 pages Rate of Respiration in Yeast Aim: I am going to investigate the rate of respiration of yeast cells in the presence of two different sugar solutions: glucose, sucrose. I will examine the two solutions seeing which one makes the yeast respire faster. I will be able to tell which sugar solution is faster at making the yeast respire by counting the number of bubbles passed through 20cm of water after the yeast and glucose...