The Effect of Shared Culture of Journalists on the Selection and Presentation of News
News is formed through a selective process which is controlled by
media professionals such as journalists correspondents and editors.
Agenda setting, a theory created by Stephen Lukes, sees how
journalistrs select news that is projected through the media. Agenda
setting also sees bias in the media, which is most commenly dominated
in the political broadcasts. The Glasgowuniversity media group agree
with the use of agenda setting in the media and use it in their
research. When looking at a political strike story the GlasgowUnivercity
media group saw how the workers were presented in a negative view
point. The journalists and broadcasters emphasied the effects of the
strikes to the public as very negative and projected the workers as
being an annoyance.
The Glasgow University Media Group also argue that journalists and
broadcasters claim that certain items have "news value" and assume
that the audiences see and interpret the world in the same way. This
reflects the "neo-Marxism" view which is highly criticised by the
Pluralists. The "Pluralism" theory sees a variety of media being
provided to the public to ensure a wide coverage of all viewpoints.
The Pluralists criticise that as the BBC are impartial to both main
political parties, bias stories would not occur.
Gate keeping in the media sees how editors choose particular sorties
to enter public media. This theory of gate keeping was created by
David White. He sees gate keeping as an 'informal process of
Gate Keeping is a selection process of eligible news stories. Editors
are the main "gate keepers." They decide what material will be
communicated to the public via the media.
Gate Keeping supports the "Traditional Marxism" and the "Manipulative
Modal" theories in which ownership and control influence members of
the public through the media. Pluralists criticise this as the idea of
"conspiracy is unreasonable" in their opinion. Also they see a variety
of media sources which would make censorship useless.
News values in the media show how news items are required to pass a
selective process to determine what will enter public media. The
theory of news values was created by Galtung and Ruge, they see that
news stories have to meet a certain criteria in order to produce a
successful newspaper or news bulletin.
Galtung and Ruge see balance as important because maintaining the
balance between international and national, heavy and light e.t.c, is
very significant in constructing the news. Also personalities is a
criteria. In politics, the person is more important than the policy,
according to the "News Values" theory.
The Glasgow University Media Group do not...