The Effects Of Drug Abuse Essay

1254 words - 5 pages

Cipriani college of labour and co-operative studiescuhrchill roosevelt highwayvalsaynCoursework Assignment: EssayQuestion 1An AssignmentPresented in Partial FulfilmentOf the Requirements for the CoursePSY100: Introduction to PsychologyInstructor: Mr. Ian DanielByMelique Celestine2013030902December 16, 2013Approval…………………According to the World Health Organization (WHO) substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome which may include a cluster of behavioural, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.Addiction is a complex disorder characterized by compulsive drug use. While each drug produces different physical effects, all abused substances share one thing in common that is, repeated use can alter the way the brain looks and functions. Taking a recreational drug causes a surge in levels of dopamine in the brain, which trigger feelings of pleasure. Your brain remembers these feelings and wants them repeated. If you become addicted, the substance takes on the same significance as other survival behaviours, such as eating and drinking. Changes in your brain interfere with your ability to think clearly, exercise good judgment, control your behaviour, and feel normal without drugs and the uncontrollable craving to use grows more important than anything else, including family, friends, career, and even your own health and happiness.The urge to use is so strong that your mind finds many ways to deny or rationalize the addiction. You may drastically underestimate the quantity of drugs you're taking, how much it impacts your life, and the level of control you have over your drug use. The American Psychiatric Association has developed strict criteria for the clinical diagnosis of abuse and dependence. They use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) which identifies seven criteria (symptoms), at least three of which must be met during a given 12-month period, for the diagnosis of substance dependence:Tolerance, as defined either by the need for increasing amounts of the substance to obtain the desired effect or by experiencing less effect with extended use of the same amount of the substance.Withdrawal, as exhibited either by experiencing unpleasant mental, physiological, and emotional changes when drug-taking ceases or by using the substance as a way to relieve or prevent withdrawal symptoms.Substance is taken for a longer duration or in greater quantities than was originally intended.Persistent desire or repeated unsuccessful efforts to stop...

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